AMD’s Bulldozer Microarchitecture

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Memory Subsystem Continued

Since the L1D is both write-through and mostly included in the L2, evicting a cache line from the L1D is silent and requires no further actions. This is beneficial since evictions are typically caused by a filling a cache line, in response to a cache miss and closely tied to the critical path for a miss. In the exclusive L1D cache for Istanbul, moving the evicted line from L1D to L2 contributed to the latency for a cache miss.

The relationship between the L1D and L2 caches also simplifies reliability. Since any data written by the L1D is also present in the L2, parity is sufficient protection for the L1; any errors can be fixed by reloading from the ECC protected L2 (or L3/memory). As a result, ECC is no longer required for the L1D (as it was for Istanbul), which reduces the power consumption for stores. In Istanbul, any store to a cache line had to first read to get the ECC, then recalculate the ECC with the new data and then finally write to the cache.

While the L1D is mostly included in the L2, there are some situations where lines can reside in the L1D without being present in the L2. As a result, the L1D may need to be snooped when another core misses in the L3 cache. This is extremely undesirable, since there will be substantial snoop traffic in a Bulldozer system which will cost both power and performance if the L1D caches must always be snooped by remote cache misses. In Nehalem, the L3 cache is inclusive precisely to eliminate this sort of snoop traffic. It stands to reason that Bulldozer was designed to eliminate snoop traffic to the L1D caches and instead have the L2 cache for each module handle all the coherency snoops for that module. Unfortunately, AMD was unwilling to disclose the precise nature of their coherency protocol at Hot Chips, so we will have to wait to find out more details.

One disadvantage of a write-through policy is that the L1D caches do not insulate the L2 cache from the store traffic in the cache hierarchy. Consequently, the L2 cache must have higher bandwidth to accommodate all the store traffic from two cores, and any associated snoop traffic and responses.

To alleviate the write-through bandwidth requirements on the L2, each Bulldozer module includes a write coalescing cache (WCC), which is considered part of the L2. At present, AMD has not disclosed the size and associativity of the WCC, although it is probably quite small. Stores from both L1D caches go through the WCC, where they are buffered and coalesced. The purpose of the WCC is to reduce the number of writes to the L2 cache, by taking advantage of both spatial and temporal locality between stores. For example, a memcpy() routine might clear a cache line with four 128-bit stores, the WCC would coalesce these stores together and only write out once to the L2 cache.

Most implementations of Bulldozer (certainly Interlagos) will share a single L3 cache, which acts as a mostly exclusive victim buffer for the L2 caches in each module. Again, AMD would not disclose any information as it concerns the overall product, rather than the core itself. However, it is possible to make an intelligent estimate based on public information. Assuming that each Interlagos die will have 8MB of L2 cache for 4 modules, the L3 is most likely to be 8MB.

AMD cannot afford to produce a die with 16MB of L3 cache on 32nm and 4MB is probably too small. When Barcelona was first released on 65nm, the L3 cache was 2MB – equal to the aggregate size of the four L2 caches. It seems reasonable that AMD would return to this arrangement. The associativity is an open question, but should be at least 16-way and more likely 32 or 64 way. It is also expected that AMD has further refined and improved the sharing and contention management policies in the L3 cache.

Prefetching is another area where historically Intel has relentlessly focused, and AMD has lagged behind. Prefetching can be highly effective at reducing memory latency, and can lead to tremendous increases in performance – especially for workloads with complex data structures that tend to incur many cache misses. In Bulldozer, there was a tremendous amount of effort put into the prefetching that should yield good results. The exact nature of the strided prefetchers (i.e. where addresses are offset by exactly +/-N bytes) was not discussed, but that is an area which has been very thoroughly explored in academia and commercial products.

More intriguing is Bulldozer’s non-strided data prefetcher, which is useful for accessing more complex and irregular data structures (e.g. linked lists, B-trees, etc.). Again, AMD did not disclose their approach, but one possibility is what we might describe as a ‘pattern history based prefetcher’. The prefetcher tracks the addresses of misses and tries to identify specific patterns of misses that occur together (temporally). Once a pattern of misses has been detected, the prefetcher will find the first miss in the pattern. When this first miss occurs again, the prefetcher will immediately prefetch the rest of the pattern. For traversing a complex data structure like a linked list, this would be a fairly effective approach. There are other techniques that have been discussed in academic literature, and it will be interesting to see which AMD implemented.

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