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One of the most difficult challenges in designing multiprocessor systems is guaranteeing forward progress, and avoiding strange network behavior that limits performance. Unfortunately, this problem is an inherent aspect of multiprocessor system design, and really impacts almost every decision made; there is no clean way to separate it from other concerns. Every coherent transaction across CSI has three phases: the snoop from the requesting CPU, the responses from the peer nodes, and the acknowledgement to the home node. As noted previously, CSI uses separate link layer virtual channels to improve performance and avoid livelocks or deadlocks. Each transaction phase has one or more associated virtual channels: snoop, response and home. These arrangements should come as no surprise, since the EV7 used similar techniques and designations. Additional channels discussed in patents include short message, data and data response channels .
One reason for providing different virtual channels is that the traffic characteristics of the three are quite distinct. Packets sent across the home channel are typically very small and must be received in order. In the most common case, a home packet would simply be an acknowledgement that a transaction can retire. The response channel sometimes includes larger packets, often containing actual cache lines (although these may go on the data response channel), and can be processed out of order to improve performance. The snoop channel is mostly smaller packets, and can also operate out of order. The optimizations for each channel are different and by separating each class of traffic, Intel architects can more carefully tune the system for high performance and lower power.
There are also priority relationships between the different classes of traffic. When the system is saturated, the home phase channels will be given the highest priority, which ensures that some transactions will retire, leaving the system and reducing traffic. The next highest priority is the response phase and associated channels, which provide data to processors so they can continue computation, and initiate the home phase. The lowest priority of traffic are the snoop phase channels, which are used to start new transactions and is the first to throttle back.
One of the problems with the existing bus infrastructure is that the interface presented to software is not particularly clean or isolated. Specifically, components of Intel’s system architecture cannot be dynamically added or removed from the front-side bus; instead the bus and all attached components must be shut down, and then restarted after disabling or adding the component in question. For instance, to remove one faulty processor in a 16 socket server, an entire node (4 processors, one memory controller hub, the local memory and I/O) must be off-lined.
CSI supports both in-band (coordinated by a system component) and out-of-band (coordinated by a service processor) dynamic reconfiguration of system resources, also known as hot plug . A system agent and the firmware work together to quiesce individual components and then modify the routing tables and system addressing decoders, so that the changes appear to be atomic to the operating system and software.
To add a system resource, such as a processor, first the firmware creates a physical and logical profile for the new processor in the rest of the system. Next, the firmware enables the CSI links between the new processor and the rest of the system. The firmware initializes the new processor’s CSI link and sends data about the system configuration to the new processor. The new processor initializes itself and begins self-testing, and will notify the firmware when it is complete. At that point, the firmware notifies the OS and the rest of the system to begin operating with the new processor in place.
System resources, such as a processor, memory or IO hub are removed though a complementary mechanism. These two techniques can also be combined to move resources seamlessly between different system partitions.
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