File size optimizations

Article: Bulldozer Benchmarks, What Do They Mean?
By: jrl (j.delete@this.r.l), April 25, 2011 2:03 am
Room: Moderated Discussions
David Kanter ( on 4/24/11 wrote:
>Well, there's a lot more than just the forums. We have a lot of articles and images
>for those articles. The real issue is the data transferred. Right now, we've used
>about 75GB this month - and there's still a week left.

You should trivially be able to cut that in half using five optimizations:

1. gzip compression of text
2. Minification of javascript and CSS
3. Enabling the "Expires" and "Cache-Control" header in HTTP headers
4. Judicious selection of PNG vs JPG
5. Serving static content from a cheap web host


1. Web servers can compress content on-the-fly before serving to clients. Your forum post (the one I'm replying to) was 171686 bytes in text alone. However, if gzipped, it is only 12500 bytes. That's a 93% file size reduction.

2. javascript and CSS can be "minified" by removing unnecessary whitespace, shortening local variable and method names, and so on. Using csstidy or YUI compressor on the 3 major .js and .css files used on this website yield the following file size reductions:

3. HTTP headers support the "Expires" field. This is a signal to browsers for how long to cache content from a website (rather than redownloading the content every time they refresh a page). Content like banner images or javascript files are frequently-loaded by users, but the content itself is static for weeks, months, or even years. Let's take look at the HTTP headers for the banner image on the forum:

Although there is an ETag (which is also a signal to the browser for caching purposes), it is better to have an explicit Cache-Control field in the HTTP headers. If I host the same banner image from my web server, you can see the additional field:

    HTTP/1.1 200 OK
    Date: Mon, 25 Apr 2011 09:26:04 GMT
    Server: Apache/2.2.16 (Debian) PHP/5.3.3-7+squeeze1
    Last-Modified: Mon, 08 Mar 2010 04:10:50 GMT
    ETag: "135c9da-32cd-4814240184680"
    Accept-Ranges: bytes
    Content-Length: 13005
    Cache-Control: max-age=2592000
    Expires: Wed, 25 May 2011 09:26:04 GMT
    Connection: close
    Content-Type: image/png

This is because I use mod-expires in Apache. It has been configured to tell clients to cache images for 1 month (2592000 seconds = 30 days).

4. PNG and JPG are best-suited for differing applications. PNG is lossless, and is it good for flat text and illustrations with a limited number of colours. JPG is great for photorealistic images. It is important to choose the right image format for the job.

(Note: not all image encoders are created equally. Using pngcrush, it is usually possible to further compress a PNG (losslessly) beyond the encoding done by image editing tools).

Here is an analysis of 3 images from this site:

(Note: good quality JPG = low compression; mediocre quality JPG = high compression)

The first image is tricky. It has text, but with soft edges. It turns out that the image can be converted to JPG with virtually no reduction in perceptible image quality.

The second image is a good candidate for JPG compression. Although there is some text, this image is mostly a muddle of colours with soft edges. Using high JPG compression ("mediocre quality"), a massive 68% reduction in file size is achieved, with little impact on overall image quality.

The third image is an ideal candidate for PNG: sharp text, flat colours, and sharp edges. In fact, converting this image to a JPG increases the file size, and the image quality still suffers.

Finally, take notice of the fact that pngcrush was able to (losslessly) reduce the size of all three images. If nothing else, you should run pngcrush on all PNGs on the RWT server. You'll likely see an average of a 20% file size reduction across all PNG images.

5. You say that it is expensive for you to transfer 75 - 150GB/month from your current host. This shouldn't be the case, because data transfers only cost 10 cents/GB from a premium provider. I infer that your current host is overcharging for data transfers.

Thus, move all static content/images to a less-expensive service, and only serve dynamic content from your current provider. You will have to add a CNAME record to cover the new system.

This isn't a technology optimization, per se, but a financial one. It is a workaround to the cost structure imposed by your Windows/Coldfusion/SQL Server host (only use them to serve dynamic content).
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TopicPosted ByDate
New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisDavid Kanter2011/03/30 02:27 AM
  New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisNaN2011/03/30 07:47 AM
    New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisDavid Kanter2011/03/30 09:25 AM
      New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisdc2011/03/30 12:07 PM
      New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisFoo_2011/03/30 12:17 PM
        New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisDavid Kanter2011/03/30 01:34 PM
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            BD won't "kick in" until 2.5GHzDavid Kanter2011/03/31 09:21 AM
              He is an AMDZone lunaticNIKOLAS2011/04/01 06:40 AM
                See how he behaves hereDavid Kanter2011/04/01 08:08 AM
                He is an AMDZone lunatichorsefly2011/04/02 05:46 AM
                  This is not relevantDavid Kanter2011/04/02 09:16 AM
                  Post removedDavid Kanter2011/04/02 12:39 PM
          New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisanonymous2011/04/04 05:08 AM
      New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisinterested2011/04/01 03:28 PM
        New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisDavid Kanter2011/04/01 03:53 PM
          New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisNaN2011/04/02 07:12 AM
            New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisDavid Kanter2011/04/02 09:05 AM
              New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisNaN2011/04/02 09:24 AM
                New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisDavid Kanter2011/04/02 12:36 PM
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                    AMD's Open64 compiler ?David Kanter2011/04/04 08:19 AM
                      AMD's Open64 compiler ?Richard Cownie2011/04/04 09:52 AM
                        AMD's Open64 compiler ?David Kanter2011/04/04 01:20 PM
                          AMD's Open64 compiler ?none2011/04/04 02:25 PM
                        AMD's Open64 compiler ?gallier22011/04/04 11:06 PM
                          thanks, very interesting (NT)Richard Cownie2011/04/05 03:44 AM
                          AMD's Open64 compiler ?Andreas Stiller2011/04/05 08:23 AM
                        AMD's Open64 compiler ?Vincent Diepeveen2011/04/06 01:11 AM
                      AMD's Open64 compiler ?Vincent Diepeveen2011/04/06 01:01 AM
                        AMD's Open64 compiler ?none2011/04/06 01:41 AM
                          AMD's Open64 compiler ?Vincent Diepeveen2011/04/07 02:02 PM
                            AMD's Open64 compiler ?Brett2011/04/07 04:55 PM
                              AMD's Open64 compiler ?Megol2011/04/09 11:03 AM
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                                    Clang+LLVMBrett2011/04/12 08:27 PM
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                                          Life is not about money, but about power (and informational asymetry)?2011/04/18 01:14 AM
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                                        Clang+LLVMLinus Torvalds2011/04/13 11:47 AM
                                          Clang+LLVMRob Thorpe2011/04/13 01:46 PM
                                            Clang+LLVMLinus Torvalds2011/04/13 04:40 PM
                                              Clang+LLVManon2011/04/13 07:31 PM
                                                Clang+LLVMLinus Torvalds2011/04/14 06:11 AM
                                              Clang+LLVMRob Thorpe2011/04/14 12:33 PM
                                                Clang+LLVMLinus Torvalds2011/04/14 12:48 PM
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                                                    Clang+LLVMJouni Osmala2011/04/14 09:54 PM
                                                  Clang+LLVM?2011/04/14 11:56 PM
                                                    Clang+LLVMLinus Torvalds2011/04/15 06:23 AM
                                                      Clang+LLVM?2011/04/15 10:11 PM
                                                        Clang+LLVMLinus Torvalds2011/04/16 08:10 AM
                                                          Clang+LLVMLinus Torvalds2011/04/16 08:32 AM
                                                            Competing for speed?2011/04/16 11:47 PM
                                                            Clang+LLVMEduardoS2011/04/17 12:38 PM
                                                              Clang+LLVMLinus Torvalds2011/04/17 02:00 PM
                                                                Competing for speed?2011/04/17 10:57 PM
                                                                  Competing for speedLinus Torvalds2011/04/18 09:07 AM
                                                                    Competing for speedanon2011/04/18 05:38 PM
                                                                      Competing for speedLinus Torvalds2011/04/18 07:24 PM
                                                                        Competing for speedanon2011/04/19 05:05 AM
                                                                          Competing for speedanon2011/04/21 01:35 PM
                                                                            Competing for speedLinus Torvalds2011/04/22 11:09 AM
                                                                    Competing for speed?2011/04/18 11:45 PM
                                                                      Competing for speedLinus Torvalds2011/04/19 06:41 AM
                                                                        Competing for speedLinus Torvalds2011/04/19 07:46 AM
                                                                        Oh ... the irony?2011/04/19 10:36 AM
                                                                          Oh ... the ironyLinus Torvalds2011/04/19 01:49 PM
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                                                                              What's the speedup?Linus Torvalds2011/04/20 06:48 AM
                                                                            Oh ... the irony?2011/04/23 05:52 AM
                                                                          Oh ... the ironyDougal2011/04/20 06:23 AM
                                                                            Oh ... the irony?2011/04/25 12:05 PM
                                                                              Oh ... the ironyDougal2011/04/26 05:22 AM
                                                                                Oh ... the irony?2011/04/27 12:14 AM
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                                                    Clang+LLVManon2011/04/16 03:01 PM
                                                      Clang+LLVMRob Thorpe2011/04/18 04:53 AM
                                                        Clang+LLVManon2011/04/18 05:28 PM
                                        Clang+LLVMPaul2011/04/14 10:43 AM
                                  Clang+LLVMFoo_2011/04/12 05:36 AM
                              AMD's Open64 compiler ?Paul2011/04/10 02:50 AM
                                C++ front-endsDavid Kanter2011/04/10 06:29 AM
                                  C++ front-endsPaul2011/04/10 07:19 AM
                                    C++ front-endsanonymous2011/04/10 07:28 AM
                                      C++ front-endsnone2011/04/10 07:36 AM
                                      C++ front-endsPaul2011/04/10 07:44 AM
                                    C++ front-endsMichael S2011/04/10 07:47 AM
                                      C++ front-endsnone2011/04/10 07:51 AM
                                      C++ front-endsRob Thorpe2011/04/10 11:13 AM
                                        C++ front-endsPaul2011/04/11 10:07 AM
                                AMD's Open64 compiler ?Konrad Schwarz2011/04/14 01:06 AM
                              Testing Clang + LLVMVincent Diepeveen2011/04/20 06:31 AM
                                Does your program crash when compiled with -O0? (NT)Michael S2011/04/20 10:11 AM
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                                          Testing Clang + LLVMahnoun2011/04/20 03:13 PM
                                            Testing Clang + LLVMMark Roulo2011/04/20 04:05 PM
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                                        Testing Clang + LLVMnone2011/04/21 02:36 AM
                                        Testing Clang + LLVMahnoun2011/04/21 11:02 AM
                                          Testing Clang + LLVMMichael S2011/04/21 12:01 PM
                                            Testing Clang + LLVMMichael S2011/04/21 03:29 PM
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                                                Testing Clang + LLVMMichael S2011/04/23 09:59 AM
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                            AMD's Open64 compiler ?Megol2011/04/09 10:49 AM
                              Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)?2011/04/10 12:36 AM
                                Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)?2011/04/10 12:43 AM
                                Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)Paul2011/04/10 02:37 AM
                                  Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)?2011/04/10 05:30 AM
                                  Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)Vincent Diepeveen2011/04/10 06:20 AM
                                  Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)Gabriele Svelto2011/04/11 08:24 AM
                                  Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)Michael S2011/04/12 12:12 AM
                                    Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)?2011/04/12 01:41 AM
                                      Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)EduardoS2011/04/12 03:13 PM
                                        U+269BMichael S2011/04/13 12:45 AM
                                          U+269B?2011/04/13 03:52 AM
                                            U+269BBrendan2011/04/20 07:18 AM
                                              U+269BMichael S2011/04/20 09:11 AM
                                                U+269BHeath Provost2011/04/20 10:26 AM
                                                  You are right, Heath. Sorry, Brannon.Michael S2011/04/20 10:42 AM
                                                    Sorry again, Brendan (NT)Michael S2011/04/20 10:43 AM
                                                    Testing western non-us letters.Jouni Osmala2011/04/20 09:41 PM
                                                      Those show up fine to me (NT)David Kanter2011/04/21 07:48 AM
                                                      Testing western non-us letters.Heath Provost2011/04/21 11:15 AM
                                                        Testing western non-us letters.EduardoS2011/04/22 02:14 PM
                                                          Testing western non-us letters.Heath Provost2011/04/22 03:21 PM
                                                            Testing western non-us letters.EduardoS2011/04/22 04:24 PM
                                                            We actually upgraded to 2008 R2David Kanter2011/04/22 10:23 PM
                                                              We actually upgraded to 2008 R2EduardoS2011/04/22 10:33 PM
                                                                We actually upgraded to 2008 R2rwessel2011/04/22 11:11 PM
                                                                  We actually upgraded to 2008 R2David Kanter2011/04/22 11:28 PM
                                                                    We actually upgraded to 2008 R2Ricardo B2011/04/23 09:43 AM
                                                                      We actually upgraded to 2008 R2David Kanter2011/04/23 10:31 AM
                                                                    We actually upgraded to 2008 R2sparkplug2011/04/23 08:25 PM
                                                                      We actually upgraded to 2008 R2David Kanter2011/04/24 03:36 PM
                                                                        We actually upgraded to 2008 R2anon2011/04/24 06:32 PM
                                                                          We actually upgraded to 2008 R2David Kanter2011/04/24 11:12 PM
                                                                        We actually upgraded to 2008 R2EduardoS2011/04/24 08:10 PM
                                                                          We actually upgraded to 2008 R2David Kanter2011/04/24 11:04 PM
                                                                        We actually upgraded to 2008 R2anonymous2011/04/24 08:44 PM
                                                                          We actually upgraded to 2008 R2David Kanter2011/04/24 10:57 PM
                                                                        File size optimizationsjrl2011/04/25 02:03 AM
                                                                          File size optimizationsRicardo B2011/04/25 07:14 AM
                                                                            File size optimizationsjrl2011/04/25 05:52 PM
                                                                          File size optimizationsDavid Kanter2011/04/25 07:49 AM
                                                                            File size optimizationsRicardo B2011/04/25 08:22 AM
                                                                              ContinuationRicardo B2011/04/25 08:25 AM
                                                                              File size optimizationsChristian Packmann2011/04/25 09:56 AM
                                                                                File size optimizationsEduardoS2011/04/25 11:57 AM
                                                                                  File size optimizationsRicardo B2011/04/25 01:01 PM
                                                                            File size optimizationsEduardoS2011/04/25 12:01 PM
                                                                            Javascript is at the root of the latency problemjrl2011/04/25 06:03 PM
                                                                          File size optimizationsEduardoS2011/04/25 12:14 PM
                                                                            File size optimizationsrwessel2011/04/25 12:49 PM
                                                                              File size optimizationsEduardoS2011/04/25 12:57 PM
                                                                            File size optimizationsjrl2011/04/25 05:54 PM
                                                                              A simple approachSilent2011/04/25 09:24 PM
                                                                                Show Thread exists but the default is Yes (NT)Silent2011/04/25 09:26 PM
                                                                          File size optimizationsHeath Provost2011/04/25 02:02 PM
                                    Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)Azazel2011/04/12 08:23 PM
                                Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)none2011/04/10 06:00 AM
                                  Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)dmsc2011/04/10 06:39 AM
                                  Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)EduardoS2011/04/10 12:55 PM
                                compiler failure rateshobold2011/04/10 10:55 AM
                                  compiler failure rates?2011/04/10 11:13 PM
                                    compiler failure rateshobold2011/04/11 05:07 AM
                                Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)EduardoS2011/04/10 12:55 PM
                                  Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)?2011/04/10 11:13 PM
                                    Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)Konrad Schwarz2011/04/14 01:28 AM
                                      Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)gallier22011/04/14 04:47 AM
                                      Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)EduardoS2011/04/14 02:04 PM
                                        Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)Konrad Schwarz2011/04/15 03:43 AM
                                Hard register problemsRob Thorpe2011/04/11 12:14 AM
                                  Hard register problemsMax2011/04/11 03:05 PM
                                    Hard register problemsRob Thorpe2011/04/11 03:28 PM
                                Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)gallier22011/04/11 09:26 AM
                                  I wonder why.j2011/04/11 10:39 PM
                                    I wonder why.?2011/04/11 11:44 PM
                                Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)nksingh2011/04/12 11:00 PM
                                  Imperative compilers (and the lack of it)?2011/04/12 11:23 PM
                              AMD's Open64 compiler ?Vincent Diepeveen2011/04/10 06:06 AM
                                AMD's Open64 compiler ?none2011/04/10 07:23 AM
                                  AMD's Open64 compiler ?Eugene Nalimov2011/04/11 03:57 PM
                                    AMD's Open64 compiler ?EduardoS2011/04/12 02:55 PM
                                AMD's Open64 compiler ?Megol2011/04/10 11:05 PM
                                  AMD's Open64 compiler ?Vincent Diepeveen2011/04/20 12:52 PM
                                    Yap transform? What is it? (NT)Michael S2011/04/21 09:04 AM
                                      Yap transform? What is it? (NT)Vincent Diepeveen2011/04/22 02:56 AM
                    AMD's Open64 compiler ?Vincent Diepeveen2011/04/05 12:02 PM
    New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisNaN2011/03/30 05:24 PM
      New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisChris2011/04/05 03:33 AM
  New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisdc2011/03/30 08:09 AM
    New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisMS2011/03/30 08:53 AM
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      New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisanon2011/03/31 08:29 AM
        AMD's memory controllers are fineDavid Kanter2011/03/31 09:27 AM
          AMD's memory controllers are fineanon2011/04/05 11:24 AM
            AMD's memory controllers are fineanon2011/04/05 04:52 PM
              AMD's memory controllers are fineVincent Diepeveen2011/04/06 01:36 AM
                AMD's memory controllers are fineanon2011/04/06 06:59 AM
                  AMD's memory controllers are fineVincent Diepeveen2011/04/07 02:15 PM
                    AMD's memory controllers are fineVincent Diepeveen2011/04/07 02:27 PM
                      AMD's memory controllers are fineanon2011/04/07 02:57 PM
                    AMD's memory controllers are fineanon2011/04/07 02:54 PM
        New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisAzazel2011/03/31 09:54 AM
        New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisAlex2011/03/31 11:38 PM
      New article: Bulldozer benchmark analysisanon2011/04/01 03:23 AM
    Streaming conflicts can lead to performance degradationsgc2011/04/08 06:35 AM
  AMD's probe filterAndreas Stiller2011/04/05 08:37 AM
  a waste of timeMoritz2011/04/09 07:01 AM
    a waste of timehorsefly2011/04/09 03:34 PM
      a waste of timeDavid Kanter2011/04/09 06:56 PM
        a waste of timehorsefly2011/04/10 05:13 AM
          InvestorsDavid Kanter2011/04/10 06:27 AM
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