Number of GPRs

Article: ARM Goes 64-bit
By: Exophase (exophase.delete@this.gmail.com), August 17, 2012 11:44 am
Room: Moderated Discussions
Kenneth Jonsson (kj.delete@this.localhost.org) on August 17, 2012 11:54 am wrote:
> I compiled with
> -O2 (recompiled now and double-checked that -O2 and no -O0 was passed to the
> compiler) and I excluded r13 (stack pointer, which "objdump" show as "sp"), r14
> (link register, shown as "lr") and r15 (program counter, listed as "pc"). The
> compiler is gcc 4.3.3, so not the latest and greatest. I got all this
> information via objdump, sed, sort and uniq and I'm not a expert on sed. But I
> opened the full output from "objdump -d" in emacs to double-check that those
> registers weren't use, only thing I saw with "r11" in was "cr11".

I don't think you caught what Wilco is telling you. Old versions of objdump gave the names "sl", "fp", and "ip" for r10, r11, and r12 respectively. That's almost definitely the reason why you're not seeing them. He also rightfully mentioned that you're unfairly culling R14 ("lr"), since not only is it used as a GPR but it's actually very commonly used for temporaries.

Calling GCC 4.3.3 not the latest and greatest is also a bit of an understatement, GCC 4.4, 4.5, and 4.6 all list major improvements in ARM code quality. This isn't surprising because it was over this period that improvements from Code Sourcery were merged.

I made this blog post several years listing some dynamic usage statistics for GBA games, for ARM and Thumb code separately. Of course the compiler used for these games would have been absolutely ancient, but they probably also had more hand-coded assembly, especially for ARM code. You can read it here:

http://gpsp-dev.blogspot.com/2007/03/register-usage-statistics.html
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New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitDavid Kanter2012/08/13 11:04 PM
  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitnone2012/08/13 11:44 PM
    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitDavid Kanter2012/08/14 12:04 AM
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      MONITOR/MWAITEduardoS2012/08/14 09:08 AM
        MWAIT not specifically MTPaul A. Clayton2012/08/14 09:36 AM
          MWAIT not specifically MTEduardoS2012/08/15 02:16 PM
        MONITOR/MWAITanonymou52012/08/14 10:07 AM
          MONITOR/MWAITEduardoS2012/08/15 02:20 PM
      MIPS MT-ASErwessel2012/08/14 09:14 AM
  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitSHK2012/08/14 01:01 AM
  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitanon2012/08/14 01:37 AM
    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitRichard Cownie2012/08/14 02:57 AM
      New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitanon2012/08/14 03:29 AM
      New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitnone2012/08/14 03:44 AM
        New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitanon2012/08/14 04:28 AM
          New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitanon2012/08/14 04:32 AM
            New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/08/14 05:06 AM
          New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitnone2012/08/14 04:40 AM
            AArch64 select better than cmovPaul A. Clayton2012/08/14 05:08 AM
            New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitanon2012/08/14 05:12 AM
              New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitnone2012/08/14 05:25 AM
                Predicated ld/store are usefulPaul A. Clayton2012/08/14 05:48 AM
                  Predicated ld/store are usefulnone2012/08/14 05:56 AM
                    Predicated ld/store are usefulanon2012/08/14 06:07 AM
                    Predicated stores might not be that badPaul A. Clayton2012/08/14 06:27 AM
                      Predicated stores might not be that badDavid Kanter2012/08/15 12:14 AM
                        Predicated stores might not be that badMichael S2012/08/15 10:41 AM
                        Predicated stores might not be that badR Byron2012/08/17 03:09 AM
                New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitanon2012/08/14 05:54 AM
                  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitnone2012/08/14 06:04 AM
                    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitanon2012/08/14 06:43 AM
          New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/08/14 05:07 AM
            New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitanon2012/08/14 05:20 AM
              New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitnone2012/08/14 05:29 AM
                New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitanon2012/08/14 06:00 AM
            New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitMichael S2012/08/14 02:43 PM
        New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitRichard Cownie2012/08/14 05:53 AM
          OT: Conrad's "Youth"Richard Cownie2012/08/14 06:20 AM
      New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/08/14 05:04 AM
        New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitmpx2012/08/14 07:59 AM
          New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitAntti-Ville Tuunainen2012/08/14 08:16 AM
        New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitanonymou52012/08/14 10:03 AM
          New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitname992012/11/17 02:31 PM
            Microarchitecting a counter registerPaul A. Clayton2012/11/17 06:37 PM
    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitbakaneko2012/08/14 03:21 AM
      New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitname992012/11/17 02:40 PM
        New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/11/17 03:52 PM
        New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitDoug S2012/11/17 04:48 PM
        New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitbakaneko2012/11/18 04:40 PM
          New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitWilco2012/11/19 06:59 AM
            New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/11/19 07:23 AM
              New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitWilco2012/11/19 08:31 AM
                Downloading µarch-specific binaries?Paul A. Clayton2012/11/19 10:21 AM
                New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/11/19 10:41 AM
                  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitWilco2012/11/21 06:44 AM
                    JIT vs. static compilation (Was: New Article: ARM Goes 64-bit)VMguy2012/11/22 02:21 AM
                      JIT vs. static compilation (Was: New Article: ARM Goes 64-bit)David Kanter2012/11/22 11:12 AM
                        JIT vs. static compilation (Was: New Article: ARM Goes 64-bit)Gabriele Svelto2012/11/23 02:50 AM
                    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/11/23 09:09 AM
                      New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEBFE2012/11/26 12:24 AM
                        New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitGabriele Svelto2012/11/26 02:33 AM
                          New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEBFE2012/11/27 10:17 PM
                            New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitGabriele Svelto2012/11/28 01:32 AM
                        New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/11/26 11:16 AM
                          New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEBFE2012/11/27 11:33 PM
                            New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/11/28 04:53 AM
                              New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitMichael S2012/11/28 05:15 AM
                                New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/11/28 06:33 AM
                                  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitMichael S2012/11/28 08:16 AM
                                    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/11/28 08:53 AM
                                    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEugene Nalimov2012/11/28 04:58 PM
                                      Amazing!EduardoS2012/11/28 06:25 PM
                                        Amazing! (non-italic response)EduardoS2012/11/28 06:25 PM
                                        Amazing!EBFE2012/11/28 07:20 PM
                                          Undefined behaviour doubles downEduardoS2012/11/28 08:10 PM
                              New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEBFE2012/11/28 06:54 PM
                                New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitEduardoS2012/11/28 08:21 PM
                Have you heard of Transmeta?David Kanter2012/11/19 02:47 PM
            New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitbakaneko2012/11/19 08:08 AM
            New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitDavid Kanter2012/11/19 02:40 PM
              Semantic Dictionary EncodingRay2012/11/19 09:37 PM
              New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitRohit2012/11/20 03:48 PM
                New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitDavid Kanter2012/11/20 10:07 PM
                  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitWilco2012/11/21 05:41 AM
                    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitDavid Kanter2012/11/21 09:12 AM
                    A JIT exampleMark Roulo2012/11/21 09:30 AM
                      A JIT exampleWilco2012/11/21 06:04 PM
                        A JIT examplerwessel2012/11/21 08:05 PM
                        A JIT exampleGabriele Svelto2012/11/23 02:53 AM
                        A JIT exampleEduardoS2012/11/23 09:13 AM
                          A JIT exampleWilco2012/11/23 12:41 PM
                            A JIT exampleEduardoS2012/11/23 01:06 PM
                            A JIT exampleGabriele Svelto2012/11/23 03:09 PM
                              A JIT exampleSymmetry2012/11/26 04:58 AM
            New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitRay2012/11/19 09:27 PM
    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitDavid Kanter2012/08/14 08:11 AM
  v7-M is Thumb-onlyPaul A. Clayton2012/08/14 05:58 AM
  Minor suggested correctionPaul A. Clayton2012/08/14 07:33 AM
    Minor suggested correctionanon2012/08/14 07:57 AM
  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitExophase2012/08/14 07:33 AM
    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitDavid Kanter2012/08/14 08:16 AM
      New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitjigal2012/08/15 12:49 PM
  Correction re ARM and BBC MicroPaul2012/08/14 07:59 PM
    Correction re ARM and BBC MicroPer Hesselgren2012/08/15 02:27 AM
  Memory BW so lowPer Hesselgren2012/08/15 02:14 AM
    Memory BW so lownone2012/08/15 10:16 AM
  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitdado2012/08/15 09:25 AM
  Number of GPRsKenneth Jonsson2012/08/16 01:35 PM
    Number of GPRsExophase2012/08/16 01:52 PM
      Number of GPRsKenneth Jonsson2012/08/17 01:41 AM
        Ooops, missing link...Kenneth Jonsson2012/08/17 01:44 AM
        64-bit pointers eat some performancePaul A. Clayton2012/08/17 05:19 AM
          64-bit pointers eat some performancebakaneko2012/08/17 07:37 AM
            Brute force seems to workPaul A. Clayton2012/08/17 09:08 AM
              Brute force seems to workbakaneko2012/08/17 10:15 AM
          64-bit pointers eat some performanceRichard Cownie2012/08/17 07:46 AM
            Pointer compression is atypicalPaul A. Clayton2012/08/17 09:43 AM
              Pointer compression is atypicalRichard Cownie2012/08/17 11:57 AM
                Pointer compression is atypicalHoward Chu2012/08/22 09:17 PM
                  Pointer compression is atypicalRichard Cownie2012/08/23 03:48 AM
                    Pointer compression is atypicalHoward Chu2012/08/23 05:51 AM
              Pointer compression is atypicalWilco2012/08/17 01:41 PM
                Pointer compression is atypicalRichard Cownie2012/08/17 03:13 PM
                  Pointer compression is atypicalRicardo B2012/08/19 09:44 AM
                  Pointer compression is atypicalHoward Chu2012/08/22 09:08 PM
                    Unified libraries?Paul A. Clayton2012/08/23 06:49 AM
                    Pointer compression is atypicalRichard Cownie2012/08/23 07:44 AM
                      Pointer compression is atypicalHoward Chu2012/08/23 04:17 PM
                        Pointer compression is atypicalanon2012/08/23 07:15 PM
                          Pointer compression is atypicalHoward Chu2012/08/23 08:33 PM
            64-bit pointers eat some performanceFoo_2012/08/18 11:09 AM
              64-bit pointers eat some performanceRichard Cownie2012/08/18 04:25 PM
                64-bit pointers eat some performanceRichard Cownie2012/08/18 04:32 PM
            Page-related benefit of small pointersPaul A. Clayton2012/08/23 07:36 AM
        Number of GPRsWilco2012/08/17 05:31 AM
          Number of GPRsKenneth Jonsson2012/08/17 10:54 AM
            Number of GPRsExophase2012/08/17 11:44 AM
              Number of GPRsKenneth Jonsson2012/08/17 12:22 PM
                Number of GPRsWilco2012/08/17 01:53 PM
        What about dynamic utilization?Exophase2012/08/17 08:30 AM
          Compiler vs. assembly aliasing knowledge?Paul A. Clayton2012/08/17 09:20 AM
            Compiler vs. assembly aliasing knowledge?Exophase2012/08/17 10:09 AM
            Compiler vs. assembly aliasing knowledge?anon2012/08/18 01:23 AM
              Compiler vs. assembly aliasing knowledge?Ricardo B2012/08/19 10:02 AM
                Compiler vs. assembly aliasing knowledge?anon2012/08/19 05:07 PM
                  Compiler vs. assembly aliasing knowledge?Ricardo B2012/08/19 06:26 PM
                    Compiler vs. assembly aliasing knowledge?anon2012/08/19 09:03 PM
                      Compiler vs. assembly aliasing knowledge?anon2012/08/20 12:59 AM
        Number of GPRsDavid Kanter2012/08/17 11:46 AM
          RAT issues as part of reason 1Paul A. Clayton2012/08/17 01:18 PM
        Number of GPRsname992012/11/17 05:37 PM
          Large ARFs increase renaming costPaul A. Clayton2012/11/17 08:23 PM
    Number of GPRsDavid Kanter2012/08/16 02:31 PM
    Number of GPRsRichard Cownie2012/08/16 04:17 PM
    32 GPRs ~2-3%Paul A. Clayton2012/08/16 05:27 PM
      Oops, Message-ID: aaed6e38-c7bd-467e-ba41-f40cf1020e5e@googlegroups.com (NT)Paul A. Clayton2012/08/16 05:29 PM
      32 GPRs ~2-3%Exophase2012/08/16 09:06 PM
        R31 as SP/zero is kind of neat (NT)Paul A. Clayton2012/08/17 05:23 AM
        32 GPRs ~2-3%rwessel2012/08/17 07:24 AM
          32 GPRs ~2-3%Exophase2012/08/17 08:16 AM
            32 GPRs ~2-3%Max2012/08/17 03:19 PM
      32 GPRs ~2-3%name992012/11/17 06:43 PM
    Number of GPRsmpx2012/08/17 12:11 AM
      Latency and powerPaul A. Clayton2012/08/17 05:54 AM
    Number of GPRsbakaneko2012/08/17 02:09 AM
  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitSteve2012/08/17 01:12 PM
    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitDavid Kanter2012/08/19 11:42 AM
      New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitDoug S2012/08/19 01:02 PM
      New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitAnon2012/08/19 06:16 PM
      New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitSteve2012/08/30 06:51 AM
  Scalar vs Vector registersRobert David Graham2012/08/19 04:19 PM
    Scalar vs Vector registersDavid Kanter2012/08/19 04:29 PM
  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitBaserock ARM servers2012/08/21 03:13 PM
    Baserock ARM serversSysanon2012/08/21 03:14 PM
    A-15 virtualization and LPAE?Paul A. Clayton2012/08/21 05:13 PM
      A-15 virtualization and LPAE?Anon2012/08/21 06:13 PM
        Half-depth advantages?Paul A. Clayton2012/08/21 07:42 PM
          Half-depth advantages?Anon2012/08/22 02:33 PM
            Thanks for the information (NT)Paul A. Clayton2012/08/22 03:04 PM
      A-15 virtualization and LPAE?C. Ladisch2012/08/23 10:12 AM
        A-15 virtualization and LPAE?Paul2012/08/23 02:17 PM
        Excessive pessimismPaul A. Clayton2012/08/23 03:08 PM
          Excessive pessimismDavid Kanter2012/08/23 04:05 PM
    New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitMichael S2012/08/22 06:12 AM
      BTW, Baserock==product, Codethink==company (NT)Paul A. Clayton2012/08/22 07:56 AM
  New Article: ARM Goes 64-bitReinoud Zandijk2012/08/21 10:27 PM
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