Broadwell includes LLC, just for comparision

By: juanrga (noemail.delete@this.juanrga.com), October 28, 2016 2:02 am
Room: Moderated Discussions
Simon Farnsworth (simon.delete@this.farnz.org.uk) on October 25, 2016 11:03 am wrote:
> juanrga (noemail.delete@this.juanrga.com) on October 25, 2016 9:57 am wrote:
> > anon (spam.delete.delete@this.this.spam.com) on October 23, 2016 7:25 am wrote:
> > > juanrga (noemail.delete@this.juanrga.com) on October 23, 2016 6:09 am wrote:
> > > > anon (spam.delete@this.spam.com) on October 22, 2016 8:52 am wrote:
> > > >
> > > > > I mean
> > > >
> > > > > > Apple doesn’t always have the best performance per square millimeter,
> > > > > > writes Gwennap, but it makes up for it in efficiency per clock cycle
> > > >
> > > > > that's not how it works.
> > > >
> > > > His first claim is correct, Apple Hurricane doesn't have the best performance per area,
> > > > but this is expected because it is a latency-optimized core not a throughput optimized-core.
> > > > About his second claim if by "efficiency per clock cycle" he means IPC/Area then his claim
> > > > is wrong or right depending if he is comparing to Intel or to other ARM cores.
> > >
> > > My point is that perf = clockrate * ipc. Whether the ipc is high with low clockrates
> > > or abysmal with insane clockrates doesn't matter at all for perf/area. Same
> > > perf and same area mean same perf/area, regardless of the ipc.
> >
> > But he talks about "efficiency per clock cycle" which suggest he is talking about
> > IPC/Area, not about Perf/Area. And the superior IPC/Area of Apple chips compared
> > to Intel chips is related to ARM64 efficiency: the well-known "x86 tax".
> >
> > > IPC/area is nice and all but it doesn't buy you anything. I can get you tremendous IPC
> > > by running the core so slow that I get a RAM to register load to use latency of 1 cycle.
> >
> > The variation of IPC with clocks is very small and you can only get huge IPC gains by
> > setting extremely low clocks, but that is not happening here. Hurricane is clocked at
> > 2.34GHz. Underclocking a 4GHz Haswell chip to 2GHz increases the IPC by less than 5%.
> > Apple achieving IPC parity with best Intel designs is not due to lower clocks...
>
> That claim does not fit my understanding of how IPC gets exploited in real world chips. Downclocking Haswell
> won't increase IPC by much, because the design is for high clock rates, and thus the increased IPC from a
> lower clock is only available because the ratio between memory speed and processor speed is reduced.
>
> However, if you're designing to a target clock speed, you can get much higher IPC on a comparable
> process if your clock speed is lower than if it's higher; this is simply because if the processes
> are comparable, the FO4 time is comparable, but at 2 GHz, you can fit twice as many FO4 time units
> (thus twice as many transistors) in the critical path compared to a 4 GHz clock.
>
> Thus, for your claim to be true, either the process Apple is using is far behind Intel, such that
> the FO4 time is about twice that of the Intel process (so Apple get the same number of transistors
> in the critical path as Intel, but at half the clock speed), or Apple is leaving performance
> on the table, by designing for a target clock of 4 GHz, then only achieving 2 GHz, when they could
> achieve higher IPC and higher performance by designing around the 2 GHz target clock.
>
> Assuming that Apple aren't being idiots, and that TSMC/GloFo/Samsung processes are comparable to Intel's processes
> (within 20%, say), the most likely explanation is that they're getting their IPC by exploiting the longer clock
> cycles to run more logic per clock cycle. This, in turn, means that the chip is unlikely to scale to the same
> high clock speeds as an Intel chip does, because they run out of FO4 delay as the clock goes up.
>
> Equally, of course, this implies that an Intel core run at mobile speeds is leaving performance on
> the table - you've designed around the constraints of high speed operation, then decided to clock lower,
> when you could have designed for the lower clock, and had more logic running per clock cycle.

Essentially the same rule applies upwards and downwards, only parameters vary.

If your design is optimized for 4GHz and underclocking to 2GHz increases the IPC by less than 5%, then if your design is optimized for 2GHz, overclocking it to 4GHz will reduce the IPC by a similar amount. It is not like if Apple will increase the clocks and will lost half of the IPC magically.

The A10 is running at 2.34GHz and the A10X will probably run near 3GHz. Apple will surely optimized the design for some intermediate frequency. Let us say 2.5GHz. My point is that Apple can target 4GHz for some future chip, miss some few IPC percents compared to current designs and then recover those percents via hardware improvements.

We already had this kind of discussion in this forum. Initially the multiple fanboys and trolls in this forum claimed that Apple never never could get IPC levels similar to Intel. Then Apple released cyclone (which Anandtech named "Haswell-class") and the common mantra was that Apple had obtained that IPC level because clocks were so low as 1.4GHz. The same ignorant fanboys and trolls claimed that Apple couldn't increase clocks and maintain the IPC. Well Apple has nearly duplicated frequencies and not only maintained the IPC but increased it a bit.
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            Broadwell includes LLC, just for comparisionanon2016/10/22 08:52 AM
              Broadwell includes LLC, just for comparisionjuanrga2016/10/23 06:09 AM
                Broadwell includes LLC, just for comparisionanon2016/10/23 07:25 AM
                  Broadwell includes LLC, just for comparisionjuanrga2016/10/25 09:57 AM
                    Broadwell includes LLC, just for comparisionSimon Farnsworth2016/10/25 11:03 AM
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