48-bit vs 47-bit

By: Linus Torvalds (torvalds.delete@this.linux-foundation.org), November 12, 2016 10:40 am
Room: Moderated Discussions
Brendan (btrotter.delete@this.gmail.com) on November 12, 2016 1:58 am wrote:
>
> Say you have a 1 million tiny files with an average size of about 2 KiB. You do the maths and
> find out that 64 KiB page size wastes too much memory if you have one tiny file per page, so
> you redesign the VFS cache to pack multiple tiny files into the same page. Now your 1 million
> tiny files use half as much RAM as they would have with 4 KiB pages.

Side note: filesystems do this kind of thing all the time, due to having something very similar to a "page size", namely their block size. You don't even have to do it for just small files: you simply do it for the final unaligned part of the file regardless of size (so it's often called "tail packing").

> The problem becomes memory mapped files - if a memory mapped file is shared you
> have to unpack it into a full page, and if it's not shared you copy (and avoid a
> page fault and probably make it faster).

Exactly.

And I'm sure Brendan knows this, but I want to expand a bit on this issue, because it quickly becomes a "things are possible in theory that are not good ideas in practice".

Because things like mmap() are indeed the obvious primary issue. It constrains some minimal requirements for the system.

However, the more real practical problem actually ends up being one of performance and complexity. You often could in theory do a lot of things given those minimal requirements, but in practice you definitely would not want to.

Almost all performance problems come down to caches. That's just about as true in hardware as it is in operating systems. Sure, there are lots of loads that aren't cache friendly, but they are almost invariably completely swamped by the loads that can take advantage of caches to a huge degree.

People here know how important caches are for a CPU, but when it comes to IO, caches are even more important. Even with SSD's having latencies in microseconds and throughputs in GB/s, the difference between cached data and having to do IO is just enormous.

So for an operating system, there's really three main goals: hardware access, stability and performance. The rest are (lots and lots of) small details.

I'm ignoring hardware access, because while drivers are a huge part of the kernel and have their own complexities, it's not relevant. But "stability" and "performance" is pretty critical.

The "performance" part means that one of the key things you want your operating system to do for you is cache things. It goes further than just caching the actual IO: you want the operating system to cache things like the whole pathname, because it turns out that "opening files" is not just about IO, it's about a lot of very complex operations to look up the path components on disk, and figure out how it all ties together. You can do it over and over and over again for each path component (just caching the IO itself), or you can cache the result at a higher level, and make your cache about a hundred times faster.

So it's not just that you are caching the IO operations, you actually want to cache higher-level operations in order to speed things up.

For example, let's look at how you actually read a piece of data from a file system. Let's ignore the complex situation of actually looking up pathnames and doing permission checking etc - let's imagine that we've done all that already, and now we have a file and just want to read the data. It's all in memory (disk caching), but it matters how it is in memory.

The naive (and traditional) way to do caching is to just cache the actual disk contents (in unix terms, this is a "buffer cache"). So when you need to read a file, what you do is look up the inode (or equivalent: Windows calls them something else, I think), which usually involves calling down to the filesystem to look up several indirect blocks or look up the physical location using an extent map for the file or whatever. At no point do you do any actual IO, since you have all the required disk data cached in RAM, but you do end up parsing the metadata in your cached buffers all the time.

This is all very straightforward, but there are huge problems with this.

One is simply that it's slow. It's slow because you are doing all this matedata lookup and translation work over and over again, but it's actually slow for another more subtle reasons too: your lookup is fundamentally based on the filesystem, so if you support multiple different filesystems (and everybody does, even if Linux kind of takes it to a ridiculous extreme), you have to do indirect calls and call down to various filesystem-specific routines.

And that's actually really really bad for performance and for stability. You don't want your filesystem code to be in the critical path. You don't want to have five different filesystems (or in the case of Linux, 50+ filesystems) that all have performance-critical code that is involved in every single file access.

It's also a major disaster from a locking standpoint: trust me, if you think your filesystem can do fine-grained locking right when it comes to things like concurrent lookup of pathnames, you're living in a dream world.

So what you actually want to have is filesystem-independent caching that works without having to require the low-level filesystem to get involved every time you access that file that you have cached. So you end up wanting the file caches to be virtually indexed rather than physically indexed, because the virtual-to-physical mapping is so expensive.

So you want to have a filesystem-indepdent virtual cache that means that you can look up file data without ever even having to do a single indirect jump into some low-level filesystem code.

This is absolutely critical for performance, but it turns out to be equally critical for stability and reliability. If your critical region is all in generic code, that critical code also gets tested much more, and can have all the filesystem people look at it (or realistically: have the really really best people who design the locking that your average bear won't even understand). Leave the filesystem to just do the IO, and not have to worry about the really subtle performance issues.

But to get back to the page size: it means that you can generally not play a lot of random games with the cache. Things like tail packing etc ends up being a horrible idea in a generic cache, because it makes the interface to the filesystem crazy complicated (think of how unpacking one tail now interacts with the other files that share that block of memory).

You definitely don't want that kind of complexity.

End result: the page size ends up being a very good model for the filesystem data cache. You could use different sizes, but if you want to support mmap(), the basic filesystem data cache has to be at least page aligned from a granularity standpoint. If you have tiny pages (say, if you had a 512-byte page size still), you might decide that the filesystem cache is better off ganging up a few pages, and that would be fine - you could still mmap() portions such a partial cache entity.

Of course, no modern hardware has those tiny pages, so that just doesn't come up. But we did at one point entertain the notion of making the file cache be 8kB granularity even if you had smaller pages. It just never ended up making sense.

End result: at least in Linux, the page size ends up being the same as the file data caching granularity. That's not in any way a hard requirement in theory, but there's a lot of practical reasons for it, and having multiple different packing models would have a huge complexity (and thus likely stability) cost.

Linus
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                          ARMv9 to the rescuedmcq2016/11/05 05:51 AM
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                                        48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/08 07:34 AM
                                          48-bit vs 47-bitTerry Gray2016/11/08 10:14 AM
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                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitMegol2016/11/11 09:13 AM
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                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/20 02:14 PM
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                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/20 03:57 PM
                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitBrett2016/12/04 03:01 PM
                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/12/04 04:30 PM
                                                                                        linkMichael S2016/12/05 01:26 AM
                                                                                          linkMaynard Handley2016/12/05 09:05 AM
                                                                                            linkMichael S2016/12/05 09:16 AM
                                                                                              linkMaynard Handley2016/12/05 09:44 AM
                                                                                                linkBrendan2016/12/06 02:41 AM
                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitSimon Farnsworth2016/12/05 01:35 AM
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                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitDoug S2016/12/06 02:18 PM
                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/12/06 05:48 PM
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                                                                                      RIP mmap(), you had a long run.Brett2016/12/09 05:37 PM
                                                                                        RIP mmap(), you had a long run.Maynard Handley2016/12/09 06:16 PM
                                                                                          RIP mmap(), you had a long run.dmcq2016/12/10 04:59 AM
                                                                                            RIP mmap(), you had a long run.NoSpammer2016/12/11 09:48 PM
                                                                                              RIP mmap(), you had a long run.Ricardo B2016/12/12 02:38 AM
                                                                                                RIP mmap(), you had a long run.Linus Torvalds2016/12/12 11:45 AM
                                                                                                  RIP mmap(), you had a long run.Gabriele Svelto2016/12/12 02:39 PM
                                                                                                    RIP mmap(), you had a long run.Linus Torvalds2016/12/12 07:20 PM
                                                                                                      RIP mmap(), you had a long run.Brett2016/12/13 10:01 AM
                                                                                                        RIP mmap(), you had a long run.anon2016/12/13 06:10 PM
                                                                                          RIP mmap(), you had a long run.Brett2016/12/11 02:15 PM
                                                                                            RIP mmap(), you had a long run.GTR2016/12/14 02:29 PM
                                                                                          RIP mmap(), you had a long run.GTR2016/12/14 02:08 PM
                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitYuhong Bao2016/11/20 10:53 PM
                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/21 01:06 AM
                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/21 01:18 AM
                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/21 03:15 AM
                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/21 05:33 AM
                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/21 05:55 AM
                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/21 08:36 AM
                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitAaron Spink2016/11/21 09:05 AM
                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/21 10:53 AM
                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/21 11:23 AM
                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/21 11:23 AM
                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/21 11:45 AM
                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitYuhong Bao2016/11/21 07:43 PM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/21 08:10 PM
                                                                                                Apple can eat the cost of twice the memory. Not sure if anybody else can.wumpus2016/11/22 08:50 AM
                                                                                                  Apple can eat the cost of twice the memory. Not sure if anybody else can.Doug S2016/11/22 10:19 AM
                                                                                                    Apple can eat the cost of twice the memory. Not sure if anybody else can.wumpus2016/11/22 10:33 AM
                                                                                                      Apple can eat the cost of twice the memory. Not sure if anybody else can.Doug S2016/11/22 11:06 AM
                                                                                                        Apple can eat the cost of twice the memory. Not sure if anybody else can.wumpus2016/11/23 08:24 AM
                                                                                                          Apple can eat the cost of twice the memory. Not sure if anybody else can.Linus Torvalds2016/11/23 09:07 AM
                                                                                                  Apple can eat the cost of twice the memory. Not sure if anybody else can.Linus Torvalds2016/11/22 12:02 PM
                                                                                                    Apple can eat the cost of twice the memory. Not sure if anybody else can.anon2016/11/23 12:05 AM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitRonald Maas2016/11/21 09:27 PM
                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitEtienne2016/11/23 01:46 AM
                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitanon2016/11/21 04:18 PM
                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitWilco2016/11/21 04:45 PM
                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/21 07:43 PM
                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/22 12:40 AM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/22 01:43 AM
                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/22 02:23 AM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/22 01:16 PM
                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/22 02:02 PM
                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitDoug S2016/11/22 10:59 PM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitAnne O. Nymous2016/11/22 11:26 PM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/23 02:39 AM
                                                                                                    Memory price gougingDavid Kanter2016/11/24 11:58 AM
                                                                                                      Memory price gougingGabriele Svelto2016/11/24 01:21 PM
                                                                                                        Memory price gougingDoug S2016/11/25 10:54 AM
                                                                                                          Memory price gougingLinus Torvalds2016/11/25 11:28 AM
                                                                                                          dual-Xeon DRAM pricesRichardC2016/11/25 05:29 PM
                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/22 02:34 AM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/22 05:38 AM
                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/22 06:17 AM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitRicardo B2016/11/22 07:52 AM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/22 08:40 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitRicardo B2016/11/22 09:11 AM
                                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitWilco2016/11/22 04:19 PM
                                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitRicardo B2016/11/23 03:52 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/22 02:13 PM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/22 10:51 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitRicardo B2016/11/22 01:30 PM
                                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/22 01:49 PM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/22 12:46 PM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/23 02:23 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitRicardo B2016/11/23 04:27 AM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/22 02:11 PM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/23 01:13 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitRicardo B2016/11/23 02:21 AM
                                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/23 02:55 AM
                                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/23 09:40 AM
                                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitRicardo B2016/11/23 10:05 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/23 02:52 AM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitRicardo B2016/11/22 07:42 AM
                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/22 08:11 AM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitRicardo B2016/11/22 08:37 AM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/22 08:46 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitRicardo B2016/11/22 09:45 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitEtienne2016/11/23 02:17 AM
                                                                                              How about for non-developer uses?Doug S2016/11/22 10:36 AM
                                                                                                How about for non-developer uses?Gabriele Svelto2016/11/22 02:22 PM
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                                                                                                IDE & data basesMichael S2016/11/30 08:39 AM
                                                                                                  IDE & data basesKonrad Schwarz2016/11/30 09:21 AM
                                                                                                    IDE & data basesGabriele Svelto2016/11/30 10:14 PM
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                                                                                                IDE & data basesTravis2016/11/30 05:32 PM
                                                                                                  IDE & data basesKonrad Schwarz2016/12/01 02:19 AM
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                                                                                                IDE & data basesdmcq2016/12/01 07:17 AM
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                                                                                                    Let's all use databasesdmcq2016/12/01 03:35 PM
                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/22 02:00 PM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/22 02:18 PM
                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/22 02:41 PM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitWilco2016/11/22 03:29 PM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/23 02:59 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitWilco2016/11/23 04:24 PM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/22 07:39 PM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/22 09:32 PM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitAnne O. Nymous2016/11/22 11:24 PM
                                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/23 09:51 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/23 03:39 AM
                                                                                                    "I tend to like just grepping for things"Michael S2016/11/23 02:53 AM
                                                                                                      "I tend to like just grepping for things"Gabriele Svelto2016/11/23 04:02 AM
                                                                                                        "I tend to like just grepping for things"Michael S2016/11/23 04:29 AM
                                                                                                      "I tend to like just grepping for things"Linus Torvalds2016/11/23 08:53 AM
                                                                                                        "I tend to like just grepping for things"Michael S2016/11/23 09:11 AM
                                                                                                          "I tend to like just grepping for things"Doug S2016/11/23 11:35 AM
                                                                                                        Horribleness of C++Salvatore De Dominicis2016/11/24 04:14 AM
                                                                                                          FQAMichael S2016/11/24 04:54 AM
                                                                                                            FQASalvatore De Dominicis2016/11/24 05:59 AM
                                                                                                              FQARichardC2016/11/24 07:29 AM
                                                                                                                FQARichardC2016/11/24 07:29 AM
                                                                                                              FQAslacker2016/11/24 02:46 PM
                                                                                                    OT -- "big" laptopCarlie Coats2016/11/23 09:04 AM
                                                                                                      OT -- "big" laptopLinus Torvalds2016/11/23 09:17 AM
                                                                                                        Linux laptop details?other me2016/11/23 10:46 AM
                                                                                                          Linux laptop details?Linus Torvalds2016/11/23 01:28 PM
                                                                                                            Linux laptop details?Linus Torvalds2016/11/23 01:47 PM
                                                                                                              Linux laptop details? (2 cores enough??other me2016/11/30 12:54 PM
                                                                                                                Linux laptop details? (2 cores enough??dmcq2016/11/30 02:48 PM
                                                                                                                  Linux laptop details? (2 cores enough??other me2016/11/30 07:16 PM
                                                                                                                    Linux laptop details? (2 cores enough??Ronald Maas2016/11/30 07:53 PM
                                                                                                                      Linux laptop details? (2 cores enough??anonymou52016/11/30 09:17 PM
                                                                                                                Linux laptop details? (2 cores enough??Foo_2016/12/01 03:02 AM
                                                                                                        OT -- "big" laptopYuhong Bao2016/11/23 10:17 PM
                                                                                                        OT -- "big" laptopAaron Spink2016/11/24 10:23 AM
                                                                                                          OT -- "big" laptopGabriele Svelto2016/11/24 01:26 PM
                                                                                                          Bulk PC PurchasesRob Thorpe2016/11/24 07:32 PM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitDoug S2016/11/22 11:13 PM
                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/23 09:46 AM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitDoug S2016/11/23 12:18 PM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/23 01:01 PM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/23 03:06 PM
                                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/23 03:16 PM
                                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/23 03:45 PM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitJukka Larja2016/11/27 02:17 AM
                                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/27 03:07 AM
                                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitJukka Larja2016/11/29 08:17 AM
                                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/29 08:35 AM
                                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitJukka Larja2016/12/02 07:16 AM
                                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/12/03 07:50 AM
                                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitKlimax2017/01/01 02:20 AM
                                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitJukka Larja2017/01/01 09:17 AM
                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitanon2016/11/22 09:53 PM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/23 03:21 AM
                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitanon2016/11/23 07:41 AM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/23 03:14 PM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitanon2016/11/23 05:57 PM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitJukka Larja2016/11/27 02:28 AM
                                                                                            Off-topic: greping large sourcesook2016/11/23 09:08 AM
                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/21 04:48 PM
                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitLaurent2016/11/22 08:22 AM
                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitAnne O'Nymous2016/11/22 10:47 AM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitLaurent2016/11/22 11:11 AM
                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/22 12:51 PM
                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/23 04:38 AM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/23 04:57 AM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitSimon Farnsworth2016/11/23 05:33 AM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitDoug S2016/11/23 06:59 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/24 01:14 AM
                                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/24 11:27 AM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitrwessel2016/11/25 03:12 AM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/24 12:46 AM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/22 02:30 PM
                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitanon2016/11/21 05:59 PM
                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitWilco2016/11/22 01:28 PM
                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/22 02:26 PM
                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitWilco2016/11/22 02:47 PM
                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitDoug S2016/11/22 11:18 PM
                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/23 10:05 AM
                                                                                              Actual measurementsRonald Maas2016/11/24 09:06 AM
                                                                                                Actual measurementsLinus Torvalds2016/11/24 10:25 AM
                                                                                                  Actual measurementsLinus Torvalds2016/11/24 11:12 AM
                                                                                                    Actual measurementsJ. Random Sysadmin2016/11/24 12:59 PM
                                                                                                    Actual measurementsGabriele Svelto2016/11/24 01:34 PM
                                                                                                    Actual measurementsRonald Maas2016/11/24 08:34 PM
                                                                                                      Actual measurementsLinus Torvalds2016/11/25 10:43 AM
                                                                                                  Actual measurementsRonald Maas2016/11/24 12:51 PM
                                                                                                    Actual measurementsGabriele Svelto2016/11/24 01:30 PM
                                                                                                      Actual measurementsWilco2016/11/24 04:03 PM
                                                                                                        Actual measurementsGabriele Svelto2016/11/25 12:56 AM
                                                                                                          Actual measurementsWilco2016/11/25 12:52 PM
                                                                                                      Actual measurementsRonald Maas2016/11/25 09:15 AM
                                                                                                        Actual measurementsGabriele Svelto2016/11/25 01:26 PM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitBrett2016/11/27 06:42 PM
                                                                                                Prediction, Intel ships 16kb page support in 4 yearsBrett2016/12/04 01:59 PM
                                                                                                  Easier to coalescePoindexter2016/12/04 04:31 PM
                                                                                                    Easier to coalescewumpus2016/12/05 08:58 AM
                                                                                                      Easier to coalesceLinus Torvalds2016/12/05 10:44 AM
                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/23 03:12 AM
                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitWilco2016/11/23 04:08 PM
                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/24 02:58 AM
                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitWilco2016/11/24 02:26 PM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/24 04:02 PM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitWilco2016/11/24 04:23 PM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitBrett2016/11/24 08:03 PM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitEtienne2016/11/25 01:15 AM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitDavid Hess2016/11/25 09:50 AM
                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitDoug S2016/11/25 11:05 AM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/25 12:18 PM
                                                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/25 11:05 PM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/25 11:10 PM
                                                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitJukka Larja2016/11/27 03:23 AM
                                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/27 08:27 PM
                                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitrwessel2016/11/28 02:12 AM
                                                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/28 09:27 AM
                                                                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitAnne O'Nymous2016/11/28 12:12 PM
                                                                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/30 12:39 AM
                                                                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitAnne O. Nymous2016/12/01 01:47 AM
                                                                                                            Scheduling is hard!David Kanter2016/11/28 09:38 AM
                                                                                                              Scheduling is hard!rwessel2016/11/30 02:15 AM
                                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/22 02:52 PM
                                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitGabriele Svelto2016/11/23 05:19 AM
                                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitGTR2016/12/14 01:56 PM
                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitDoug S2016/11/13 11:25 PM
                                                                      Apple 32-bit supportnone2016/11/13 11:58 PM
                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportNiels Jørgen Kruse2016/11/14 04:11 AM
                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/14 03:10 PM
                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/14 04:21 PM
                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/15 07:32 PM
                                                                              Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/16 09:21 AM
                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/17 07:29 AM
                                                                                  Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/17 07:40 AM
                                                                                    Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/17 06:20 PM
                                                                                      Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/18 06:36 AM
                                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/18 05:18 PM
                                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/18 11:15 PM
                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/19 12:25 AM
                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportAnon2016/11/19 07:04 PM
                                                                                              Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/20 12:32 PM
                                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportSimon Farnsworth2016/11/20 01:55 PM
                                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportRicardo B2016/11/21 03:05 AM
                                                                                                  Apple 32-bit supportDavid Hess2016/11/23 12:20 PM
                                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportAnon2016/11/21 11:30 PM
                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportslacker2016/11/22 03:14 PM
                                                                                              Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/22 11:31 PM
                                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/23 02:05 AM
                                                                                                  Apple 32-bit supportslacker2016/11/23 04:12 PM
                                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportslacker2016/11/23 03:57 PM
                                                                                                  Apple 32-bit supportDavid Hess2016/11/23 06:13 PM
                                                                                  Apple 32-bit supportRicardo B2016/11/18 06:55 AM
                                                                                    Apple 32-bit supportAnne O. Nymous2016/11/18 07:15 AM
                                                                                      Apple 32-bit supportRicardo B2016/11/19 11:35 AM
                                                                                    Charging..Anon2016/11/19 07:07 PM
                                                                                      Charging..David Hess2016/11/19 11:45 PM
                                                                                      Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/20 12:41 AM
                                                                                      Charging..Ricardo B2016/11/20 05:37 AM
                                                                                      Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/20 12:38 PM
                                                                                        Charging..Dan Fay2016/11/20 02:31 PM
                                                                                          Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/20 03:05 PM
                                                                                            Charging..Dan Fay2016/11/20 07:35 PM
                                                                                              Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/21 12:11 AM
                                                                                                Charging..Aaron Spink2016/11/21 01:23 AM
                                                                                                  Charging..Ricardo B2016/11/21 03:19 AM
                                                                                                    Charging..David Hess2016/11/23 11:56 AM
                                                                                                      Charging..Doug S2016/11/23 12:25 PM
                                                                                                        Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/23 12:29 PM
                                                                                                        Charging..David Hess2016/11/23 06:18 PM
                                                                                                  Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/21 03:58 AM
                                                                                                    Charging..Aaron Spink2016/11/21 08:54 AM
                                                                                                      Charging..David Hess2016/11/23 12:02 PM
                                                                                                    Charging..David Hess2016/11/23 12:00 PM
                                                                                                      Charging..Doug S2016/11/23 12:29 PM
                                                                                                        Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/24 04:18 AM
                                                                                                          Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/24 11:40 AM
                                                                                                            Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/25 01:51 AM
                                                                                                              Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/25 09:58 AM
                                                                                                                Charging..Anne O'Nymous2016/11/25 11:08 AM
                                                                                                                Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/25 05:03 PM
                                                                                                                  Charging..Doug S2016/11/25 10:40 PM
                                                                                                                    Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/27 12:55 AM
                                                                                                                      Charging..Doug S2016/11/27 11:04 AM
                                                                                                                        Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/27 12:54 PM
                                                                                                                        Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/27 01:15 PM
                                                                                                                          Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/27 03:14 PM
                                                                                                                            Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/28 02:38 AM
                                                                                                                      Charging..Ungo2016/11/27 01:04 PM
                                                                                                                        Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/27 01:18 PM
                                                                                                                          Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/27 03:29 PM
                                                                                                                            Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/28 02:36 AM
                                                                                                                  Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/26 11:11 AM
                                                                                                                    Charging..Simon Farnsworth2016/11/27 12:54 AM
                                                                                                  Charging..Anon2016/11/21 11:14 PM
                                                                                                    Charging..David Hess2016/11/23 12:04 PM
                                                                                                      Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/23 01:20 PM
                                                                                                        Charging..David Hess2016/11/23 06:32 PM
                                                                                                          Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/24 11:50 AM
                                                                                                            Charging..David Hess2016/11/25 11:54 AM
                                                                                              Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/21 09:05 AM
                                                                                                Charging..Anne O'Nymous2016/11/21 12:59 PM
                                                                                                  Charging..Maynard Handley2016/11/21 02:40 PM
                                                                                                    Charging..Aaron Spink2016/11/21 06:41 PM
                                                                                                    Charging..anon2016/11/25 04:04 PM
                                                                                                Charging..Gabriele Svelto2016/11/22 02:01 AM
                                                                                            Apple eleganceAnon2016/11/21 03:03 AM
                                                                                              Apple elegancePoindexter2016/11/21 05:58 AM
                                                                              Apple 32-bit supportPeter Lund2016/11/17 06:44 AM
                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportSimon Farnsworth2016/11/17 07:02 AM
                                                                                  Apple 32-bit supportdmcq2016/11/17 09:36 AM
                                                                                    Apple 32-bit supportSimon Farnsworth2016/11/17 09:53 AM
                                                                                    Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/18 06:42 AM
                                                                                      Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/18 05:21 PM
                                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/18 11:23 PM
                                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/19 12:56 AM
                                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportJukka Larja2016/11/19 12:43 PM
                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/19 01:52 PM
                                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportAnon2016/11/19 07:13 PM
                                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportDavid Hess2016/11/19 11:41 PM
                                                                                  Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/17 10:09 AM
                                                                                    Apple 32-bit supportSimon Farnsworth2016/11/17 11:02 AM
                                                                                      Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/17 11:50 AM
                                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/17 06:07 PM
                                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/17 07:26 PM
                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportNever_By_Ten2016/11/17 10:25 PM
                                                                                              Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/18 01:15 PM
                                                                                                Metric and Imperialdmcq2016/11/19 04:42 AM
                                                                                                  Metric and ImperialRicardo B2016/11/21 03:50 AM
                                                                                                    Metric and Imperialdmcq2016/11/21 04:53 PM
                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/18 01:13 AM
                                                                                              Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/18 01:18 PM
                                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/18 05:25 PM
                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportJukka Larja2016/11/19 12:37 PM
                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportGabriele Svelto2016/11/20 03:12 PM
                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportSimon Farnsworth2016/11/21 12:12 AM
                                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportSimon Farnsworth2016/11/18 02:45 AM
                                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/18 01:22 PM
                                                                                    Apple 32-bit supportAnne O'Nymous2016/11/17 03:59 PM
                                                                                      Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/17 04:35 PM
                                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportAnne O. Nymous2016/11/18 12:41 AM
                                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/18 01:04 PM
                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportAnne O'Nymous2016/11/18 01:51 PM
                                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/18 06:56 AM
                                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/18 01:14 PM
                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/18 03:22 PM
                                                                                              Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/18 04:53 PM
                                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/18 05:38 PM
                                                                                                  Apple 32-bit supportwumpus2016/11/19 10:17 AM
                                                                                                  Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/19 11:55 AM
                                                                                                    Apple 32-bit supportJukka Larja2016/11/19 10:46 PM
                                                                                                      Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/20 12:20 PM
                                                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/21 01:29 AM
                                                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportanon2016/11/22 07:22 AM
                                                                                                    Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/20 12:56 AM
                                                                                                      Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/20 11:58 AM
                                                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/20 12:58 PM
                                                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/21 01:39 AM
                                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/21 09:39 AM
                                                                                                              Apple 32-bit supportAnne O'Nymous2016/11/21 12:52 PM
                                                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/21 01:06 PM
                                                                                                                  Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/21 06:45 PM
                                                                                                                    Apple 32-bit supportMegol2016/11/28 05:55 AM
                                                                                                                      Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/28 06:55 AM
                                                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportGabriele Svelto2016/11/22 02:03 AM
                                                                                                                .NET? (NT)Michael S2016/11/22 02:36 AM
                                                                                                                  .NET?Anne O'Nymous2016/11/22 03:06 AM
                                                                                                                    .NET?Michael S2016/11/22 03:30 AM
                                                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/21 01:37 AM
                                                                                                        Apple 32-bit supportDoug S2016/11/21 12:28 PM
                                                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportMaynard Handley2016/11/21 12:34 PM
                                                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportJukka Larja2016/11/27 04:46 AM
                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportAaron Spink2016/11/17 07:33 AM
                                                                                Apple 32-bit supportMegol2016/11/19 06:33 AM
                                                                                  An earpiece speaker design alternativePaul A. Clayton2016/11/19 05:21 PM
                                                                          Apple 32-bit supportgallier22016/11/15 12:06 AM
                                                                            Apple 32-bit supportdmcq2016/11/15 02:01 AM
                                                                              Apple 32-bit supportnone2016/11/15 02:15 AM
                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/14 10:16 AM
                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitBrett2016/11/19 11:24 PM
                                                                Large pages on large SMP machinesGabriele Svelto2016/11/14 01:38 AM
                                                                  Huge pages are something of an exceptionPaul A. Clayton2016/11/14 08:28 AM
                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitBrendan2016/11/12 01:58 AM
                                                              This does assume permissions and validity tied to translations ☺ (NT)Paul A. Clayton2016/11/12 05:30 AM
                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/12 10:40 AM
                                                            48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/12 09:53 AM
                                                              48-bit vs 47-bitnone2016/11/13 01:28 AM
                                                                48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/13 11:16 AM
                                                                  48-bit vs 47-bitBrett2016/11/13 03:12 PM
                                                                    48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/13 05:54 PM
                                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/13 05:58 PM
                                                                        48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/13 06:22 PM
                                                                          48-bit vs 47-bitMaynard Handley2016/11/14 10:21 AM
                                                      48-bit vs 47-bitanon2016/11/18 10:09 PM
                                            48-bit vs 47-bitMichael S2016/11/09 12:59 AM
                                            48-bit vs 47-bitKonrad Schwarz2016/11/09 04:34 AM
                                              48-bit vs 47-bitLinus Torvalds2016/11/09 11:52 AM
                            I don't think soFoo_2016/11/08 04:45 AM
                      ARMv9 to the rescueKonrad Schwarz2016/11/07 03:51 AM
                        ARMv9 to the rescueKonrad Schwarz2016/11/07 04:02 AM
                          My Possibly Hair Brained IdeasTerry Gray2016/11/07 05:58 PM
                will memory continue to grow exponentially?gallier22016/11/04 01:36 AM
    v8.2 already added 52-bit VA supportMeep2016/11/01 02:36 PM
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How do you spell green?