New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUV

Article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUV
By: Michael S (already5chosen.delete@this.yahoo.com), June 13, 2022 11:20 am
Room: Moderated Discussions
--- (---.delete@this.redheron.com) on June 13, 2022 10:47 am wrote:
> anonymou5 (no.delete@this.spam.com) on June 13, 2022 6:21 am wrote:
> > > There has been much speculation about whether the choice of cobalt had something to do
> > > with the shortcomings of the 10 nm Intel CMOS process. The fact that Intel 4 has reverted
> > > to copper, even if with improved linings, seems to confirm that supposition.
> > >
> > > The high resistance of the cobalt interconnections is likely to have been one of
> > > the reasons for the much too low clock frequencies of Cannon Lake and Ice Lake.
> >
> > Define "much too low".
> >
> > Sure, e.g. 3.2 for CNL wasn't king of the hill... but for a U part? Not too bad.
> >
> > The GPU side... was abysmal though...
> >
> > Also, if Co was a speed limiter, then Intel should have seen that coming.
> > Or are you suggesting their engineers are complete idiots? :)
> >
> > > The other serious problem of the 10 nm process, the very
> > > low yields, might have been determined mainly by their
> > > choices for photolithography, where they have attempted to get very small pitches without using EUV.
> >
> > This.
>
> Yeah, the cobalt story has always seemed like it omitted something.
> TSMC use cobalt for 7nm (and presumably 5nm, though I haven't seen
> direct evidence of that), and did not appear to have problems.
> https://twitter.com/lasserith/status/1121905450172211200?lang=ar
>

The tweet is bragging about cobalt *contacts*.
Intel tried to use cobalt *conductors* instead of copper conductors in two inner layers of the stack.

> Of course there are always details, and it's possible the precise way Intel insisted on using
> cobalt (in terms of liners, seeds, temperature processing, etc) got something wrong.
>
> So if cobalt works, why the reversion (or sideways move) to "enhanced copper" (which as I've
> pointed out before appears to be based on a TSMC paper from, I think it was, 2010)?
> This isn't the paper I had in mind (which I can't find right now) but shows
> similar sort of work: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5510762
>
> Perhaps "enhanced copper" was always the optimal solution, it just took time for Intel (and TSMC?
> or LAM for both of them?) to figure out the metallurgy in enough detail for manufacturing?

Optimal solution at this scale.
But for finer scales we will need a metal with shorter mean free path of electrons anyway.
If not cobalt then what?
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New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVDavid Kanter2022/06/12 07:05 PM
  New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVDylanP2022/06/12 09:52 PM
  New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVRohit Garg2022/06/13 12:59 AM
    New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVAdrian2022/06/13 01:35 AM
  New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVAdrian2022/06/13 01:50 AM
    New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVanonymou52022/06/13 06:21 AM
      New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVAdrian2022/06/13 07:32 AM
      New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUV---2022/06/13 10:47 AM
        New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVMichael S2022/06/13 11:20 AM
          New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUV---2022/06/13 09:11 PM
            New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVAdrian2022/06/13 10:42 PM
              New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUV---2022/06/14 09:58 AM
                New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVAdrian2022/06/14 12:06 PM
                  New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVanonymou52022/06/14 09:25 PM
        New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVDavid Kanter2022/06/13 07:26 PM
          New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUV---2022/06/13 09:08 PM
  Power and Frequency Improvement of Intel 4Sean M2022/06/13 03:28 AM
    Power and Frequency Improvement of Intel 4Adrian2022/06/13 05:27 AM
  Cong is dead, long live eCungMichael S2022/06/13 04:47 AM
  foundry nodesMichael S2022/06/13 05:13 AM
    foundry nodesRayla2022/06/13 05:56 AM
      foundry nodesMichael S2022/06/13 06:20 AM
        foundry nodesRayla2022/06/13 07:24 AM
      foundry nodesanonymou52022/06/13 06:26 AM
  New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVFred Chen2022/06/13 08:38 AM
    New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVDavid Kanter2022/06/13 09:41 AM
      New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVFred Chen2022/06/13 06:11 PM
  New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVBjörn Ragnar Björnsson2022/06/13 09:08 AM
    New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVanonymou52022/06/13 11:50 AM
    New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVBill K2022/06/14 01:58 AM
      [quibble] Yield is not determined by size alonePaul A. Clayton2022/06/14 12:27 PM
        You can always add redundancy ... it is only money!Mark Roulo2022/06/14 01:56 PM
          You can always add redundancy ... it is only money!me2022/06/14 06:11 PM
            You can always add redundancy ... it is only money!anonymou52022/06/14 09:44 PM
              You can always add redundancy ... it is only money!John2022/06/15 04:34 PM
                You can always add redundancy ... it is only money!anonymou52022/06/15 07:09 PM
          You can always add redundancy ... it is only money!Paul A. Clayton2022/06/16 01:04 PM
        [quibble] Yield is not determined by size aloneBill K2022/06/14 02:52 PM
          Yield vs function...Björn Ragnar Björnsson2022/06/14 04:20 PM
            Yield vs function...Bill K2022/06/14 05:33 PM
  New article: Intel 4 Process Scales Logic with Design, Materials, and EUVanon2022/06/21 09:59 AM
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