limits of sorting

Article: Hot Chips XXI Preview
By: JasonB (no.delete@this.spam.com), August 20, 2009 7:20 pm
Room: Moderated Discussions
Richard Cownie (tich@pobox.com) on 8/20/09 wrote:
---------------------------
>Oh, I daresay the STL sort() was *correct* from the
>beginning. But when it's a) mixed in with a lot of
>other flaky stuff, and b) not particularly fast in
>some cases, then the decision to use it is not so obvious.

Well, as I said, if sort() was defined correctly but the compiler couldn't turn that into correct code then I wouldn't trust it with any code, including my own sorting algorithm.

Note that the cases where it was "not particularly fast" are exactly those where the Quicksort algorithm is not particularly fast. If you're willing to sacrifice average performance to get better worst-case performance then stable_sort() is a better option, however now that all implementations are using Introsort for sort() the worst-case behaviour is the same.

You shouldn't rely on it being the same, of course, because the current standard doesn't guarantee that.

>And that's a good argument for the *correctness* of such code.
>But for uses which are performance-critical, I'm much
>more skeptical about picking up "standard" stuff which
>necessarily has to cater to the lowest common denominator,
>rather than being optimized to the characteristics of your
>own particular problem.

One of the things I like about C++ is that there is no reason for the standard stuff to cater for the lowest common denominator. It should already have partial specialisations for all the built-in types where it makes sense to do so, and you can supply your own specialisations for e.g. key comparison and element swapping on your own data structures and the algorithm will seamlessly take advantage of them without incurring any unnecessary function call overhead (as qsort() does).

>Yeah, that's one way a sort() can go wrong. The other way
>is a bus error or segmentation violation ... or maybe a
>pathological case that takes hours to run, or even an infinite loop. And if any of those happen,
>you can bet it will be at the site of your largest
>customer, right while you're negotiating a big order :-(

I don't see how they can be any more likely (and I would posit less likely, given the stricter testing regime that standard library code has to pass) than code you have written yourself.

If you're worried you can always simply inspect the header file to verify the implementation. None of the standard algorithms are terribly complicated.

>Trouble is that "revisiting assumptions" in 1M+ lines of
>code could take years. If something shows up in profiling
>or other performance analysis, then you look at it, for
>sure. But otherwise it's all going to stay just the way
>it is.

The issue in this case is that the world has changed, and if you only ever revisit assumptions when something shows up in profiling then you miss out on taking advantage of those changes.

For example, in the past ten years it's entirely possible that nothing much has changed when profiling your code, yet portions of that code could be much slower than they otherwise would be if they were threaded. Similarly, when first written it may have been using x87 code and may now profit greatly from using SSE[n], but because the profiling results haven't changed there's nothing to indicate that you should investigate.

In my case, the float-to-int conversion routines that we wrote ten years ago to address VC6's braindead casting implementation are now slower than VC2k8's casting implementation, and taking them out has a measurable impact on overall performance even though they've never shown up in profiling as suddenly being a problem.

The prevalence of many cheap cores and the relative stagnation of single threaded performance make that a really obvious target, however.

>As for the "single-threaded" issue, I'm actively working
>on ways to exploit more parallelism. But my own opinion
>is that a scheme based on multiple processes (each
>with their own protected address space) is likely to
>yield a product-quality solution much earlier than an
>approach based on multiple threads in a single address
>space (which is the more conventional approach). YMMV.

MMDV, yes. I use both; if I restricted our parallelism to only those cases where multiple processes were the solution we would lose most of the current speedups that we have gained and we would lose some of the premium we can therefore charge for the higher-performance versions.

>Most of our code is 64bit these days - and the core code
>has been 64bit since around 2000 (first on SPARC/Solaris,
>then on x86_64 as soon as that became available).
>I don't think it made much difference to any of the
>design decisions though.

So even with a 64 bit virtual address space to play with you still find you rely on the memory allocator returning addresses in a particular way?

>>No. On a conformant implementation you can build an entire program around the assumption
>>that malloc() either returns NULL or the address of the start of a block
>>of memory at least as large as requested, suitably aligned that it can be assigned
>>to a pointer to any type of of object, and then used to access such an object or
>>an array of such objects in the space allocated, and that is disjoint from all other
>>objects, and you will not be relying on undefined behaviour at all.
>
>Yes you are. You're relying on the undefined behavior of
>how much memory malloc() will give you, on a particular
>platform, with other processes running, before it craps
>out and returns NULL.

No, at several different levels.

Firstly, unless you are not bothering to check the return value because you "know" it will always succeed, then you are not relying on anything other than the guarantees in the standard, which, by definition, you are allowed to rely on. If you rely only on the guarantees I listed above, then you can use your very uncooperative malloc() (which I don't agree is consistent with the standard's specification for malloc()'s behaviour but it doesn't matter), or a malloc() that randomly returns NULL for no good reason, or a malloc() that behaves in the way described by the standard, and the code will still be perfectly valid and conformant.

Secondly, there are platforms for which you can't rely on the above guarantees (e.g. Linux and apparently MacOS X), because they return a non-NULL value for malloc() even when there isn't sufficient memory available and therefore can run out of memory and kill your process or even somebody else's process when you actually try to use that memory. As I said, that makes those platforms non-conformant by definition. It doesn't make your program non-conformant and it doesn't mean you are relying on undefined behaviour, and the existence of non-conformant environments certainly doesn't mean that you can't write non-trivial programs using dynamic memory allocation that don't rely on undefined behaviour -- Windows, for example, is perfectly happy to oblige, and Linux offers settings that you can use to make it conformant.

>Which depends on the allocation
>algorithm, the pattern of allocations, how much swap space
>the machine is configured with, and what other processes
>are running. In my trivial example, the answer is
>that malloc() is going to crap out right away. But *no*
>implementation actually defines the behavior in detail -
>fragmentation is too complex, the OS environment is too
>complex.

The point is that it doesn't matter if and when malloc() returns NULL if you are checking for it, as you must. If you check for NULL and do whatever you need to do to cope with it (which could be anything from calling exit() to attempting to free up some memory being used elsewhere and/or being less ambitious in the size requested, which sometimes you can do with some performance loss) then you haven't assumed anything. (In our code we use set_new_handler to install a routine that will try to free up some memory in low memory situations.)

It's only when you don't check for NULL and assume you always got the memory you asked for that you are relying on undefined behaviour. Or when you assume something about the memory you will be allocated other than what I listed above (which could range from undefined -- e.g. assuming that you can use a certain range beyond that which you actually allocated -- to merely unspecified -- e.g. assuming a certain order or contiguity to the storage allocated by successive calls).

>>We actually came across a problem in the last couple of months where some data
>>types not using our own explicit memory management (because it never gets
>>large enough to warrant our attention) started failing to allocate memory only after
>>24 hours of runtime or so, despite there being huge amounts of physical and virtual address space still available.
>
>There you go, that's just the kind of "undefined behavior"
>of malloc that I'm talking about.

But we weren't relying on it. Our software didn't crash and nothing was lost, it just stopped and reported that it was unable to proceed. So instead of stopping, it now takes steps to see if it can jump-start the memory allocation process again. In this case it works (the first attempt didn't so we had to get more drastic and dump everything from memory to start from a completely clean slate) but even if it didn't and the program had to give up and say "Sorry" we still wouldn't be relying on undefined behaviour.

If, OTOH, we had assumed that malloc() (or new in this case) would never fail, then you could say that we were relying on undefined behaviour. (It's harder in the case of new because it will throw an exception; you have to go out of your way to try and use the pointer under those circumstances. We normally wrap the user-level operation itself with an exception handler and, where possible, do the work "off to the side". If the operation succeeds the results are incorporated into the project, and if it fails we simply report that it was unable to perform the requested operation. If bad_alloc was thrown and we are unable to do anything to free up some memory ourselves we advise the user to either be less ambitious or take steps to free up memory themselves.)

The simple fact that a program may not be able to perform a particular operation it was designed to on a particular system due to insufficient resources does not mean it is relying on undefined behaviour unless it erroneously assumed it would be able to access those resources. An inability to acquire necessary resources is a fact of life and it is in no way relying on undefined behaviour to refuse to do something unless those resources are available.

>>The problem with that is the overhead of copying data into different processes
>>rules out a whole class of worthwhile operations that could be profitably threaded.
>
>Maybe it does, maybe it doesn't. The dirty secret about
>multi-core and multi-socket machines with caches is that
>your threaded program is going to spend a whole lot of
>time moving cache lines between the different caches.
>It's not completely obvious that moving data explicitly
>and in advance will end up costing you a lot more than
>having it happen implicitly on demand. And the implicit
>case is *definitely* going to be harder to understand
>(because the data movement operations that take the time
>are not apparent in the source code).

However:

* Simply using processes instead of threads doesn't remove those additional copy operations, so you still have to move the data explicitly and in advance in addition.

* You can also set processor affinity for a thread exactly as easily as you can for a process.

* In at least one of our cases you don't know which data should be moved in advance (threads remove work items off the head of a queue) so you would either have to copy all of it, once for each process, and then have the communications overhead of telling each process when one of the items has been removed from the head, or you would have to try to partition it in some way that would be a serious problem in this case because one of the things the threads do is add stuff to the queue as well, i.e. only some of the data is there at the beginning.

* If your structure includes pointers then you'll have to figure out how to remap those on transfer to a different address space, possibly forcing you to use a different structure just to make that easier even if it was not the optimal one, as well as copy across a whole bunch of other data that the data you wish to process relies on. In the general case this could involve an entire serialisation/de-serialisation operation.

* With modern prefetching implementations, a low frequency of non-local memory accesses could be completely hidden in a way that a bulk copy up-front could not be, and if the data is sufficiently large the copy operation could trash your caches anyway. (If the frequency of memory access is so high that the code is actually bandwidth limited then there's probably not much point threading it in the first place.)

One option is to use shared memory. This isn't all that different to threading except data is not shared by default so you have better control over the portion you need to be careful about, whereas with threading everything is shared by default and you have to explicitly request thread-local storage.
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                                                    limits of sortinghobold2009/08/18 03:26 AM
                                                      limits of sortingMichael S2009/08/18 04:26 AM
                                                        limits of sorting_Arthur2009/08/18 05:03 AM
                                                          limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/18 05:32 AM
                                                            limits of sortingMichael S2009/08/18 06:17 AM
                                                              limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/18 07:22 AM
                                                                limits of sorting_Arthur2009/08/18 07:57 AM
                                                                  limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/18 08:30 AM
                                                                    limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/18 08:45 AM
                                                                    limits of sortingMichael S2009/08/18 08:50 AM
                                                                      limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/18 09:09 AM
                                                                        limits of sortingMichael S2009/08/18 09:33 AM
                                                                          limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/18 09:53 AM
                                                                            limits of sortingMichael S2009/08/18 10:28 AM
                                                                              limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/18 11:01 AM
                                                                                limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/18 05:40 PM
                                                                                  limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/18 06:22 PM
                                                                                    You work on EDA right Richard?David Kanter2009/08/18 06:49 PM
                                                                                      You work on EDA right Richard?Richard Cownie2009/08/19 04:56 AM
                                                                                        You work on EDA right Richard?David Kanter2009/08/19 07:26 AM
                                                                                          You work on EDA right Richard?Richard Cownie2009/08/19 07:47 AM
                                                                                            You work on EDA right Richard?slacker2009/08/19 08:52 AM
                                                                                              You work on EDA right Richard?Richard Cownie2009/08/19 09:10 AM
                                                                                                You work on EDA right Richard?slacker2009/08/19 10:36 PM
                                                                                                  You work on EDA right Richard?slacker2009/08/19 10:45 PM
                                                                                                  You work on EDA right Richard?Richard Cownie2009/08/20 04:28 AM
                                                                                                    You work on EDA right Richard?slacker2009/08/20 05:32 AM
                                                                                          You work on EDA right Richard?Aaron Spink2009/08/19 11:08 PM
                                                                                          You work on EDA right Richard?Rob Thorpe2009/08/20 07:31 AM
                                                                                            You work on EDA right Richard?David Kanter2009/08/20 08:58 AM
                                                                                              You work on EDA right Richard?Rob Thorpe2009/08/20 03:10 PM
                                                                                    limits of sortingrwessel2009/08/18 06:56 PM
                                                                                    limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/18 10:11 PM
                                                                                      limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/18 10:25 PM
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                                                                                        limits of sortingRob Thorpe2009/08/19 06:12 AM
                                                                                          limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/19 06:46 AM
                                                                                        limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/19 07:43 PM
                                                                                          limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/20 06:47 AM
                                                                                            limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/20 07:20 PM
                                                                                              limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/20 10:12 PM
                                                                                                limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/21 01:08 AM
                                                                                                  limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/21 04:15 AM
                                                                                                    limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/22 05:24 PM
                                                                                                      limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/22 06:27 PM
                                                                                                        limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/22 07:39 PM
                                                                                                        limits of sorting?2009/08/23 04:07 AM
                                                                                                          limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/23 04:53 AM
                                                                                                            limits of sortinganonymous2009/08/23 10:42 AM
                                                                                                              useful link, thanksRichard Cownie2009/08/23 04:23 PM
                                                                                                            limits of sorting?2009/09/04 03:05 AM
                                                                                                        limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/23 08:26 AM
                                                                                                          wacky C++ featuresRichard Cownie2009/08/24 06:13 AM
                                                                                                            wacky C++ featuresa reader2009/08/24 08:59 PM
                                                                                                              wacky C++ featuresRichard Cownie2009/08/25 02:18 AM
                                                                                                                wacky C++ featuresa reader2009/08/25 06:04 AM
                                                                                                                  wacky C++ featuresPotatoswatter2009/08/25 09:21 PM
                                                                                                                    wacky C++ featuresnone2009/08/26 04:47 AM
                                                                                                                    wacky C++ featuresRichard Cownie2009/08/26 07:09 AM
                                                                                                                      wacky C++ featuresPotatoswatter2009/08/27 05:25 AM
                                                                                                            wacky C++ featuresAndi Kleen2009/08/24 11:06 PM
                                                                                                              wacky C++ featuresRichard Cownie2009/08/25 02:10 AM
                                                                                                              wacky C++ featuresOctoploid2009/08/25 02:40 AM
                                                                                                                wacky C++ featuresRichard Cownie2009/08/25 04:15 AM
                                                                                                                  wacky C++ featuresAndi Kleen2009/08/25 06:58 AM
                                                                                                                    thanksRichard Cownie2009/08/25 07:07 AM
                                                                                                                      thanksAndi Kleen2009/08/25 10:28 AM
                                                                                                              wacky C++ featuresanon2009/08/25 02:34 PM
                                                                                                                wacky C++ featuresAndi Kleen2009/08/25 09:25 PM
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                                                                                                              wacky C++ featuresRichard Cownie2009/08/25 01:32 AM
                                                                                                                exceptiona reader2009/08/25 06:32 AM
                                                                                                                  exceptionRichard Cownie2009/08/25 06:57 AM
                                                                                                                    exceptionPotatoswatter2009/08/25 07:30 AM
                                                                                                                wacky C++ featuresJasonB2009/08/25 07:56 PM
                                                                                                                  correctionJasonB2009/08/25 08:47 PM
                                                                                                                    correctionc++2009/08/26 08:53 AM
                                                                                                                      correctionJasonB2009/08/26 06:48 PM
                                                                                                                      (new char[10]) does not have array type (NT)Potatoswatter2009/08/27 05:27 AM
                                                                                                                      correctionPotatoswatter2009/08/27 06:52 AM
                                                                                                                        correctionc++2009/08/27 08:29 AM
                                                                                                                          comeau bugs and gcc featuresPotatoswatter2009/08/27 08:51 AM
                                                                                                                            comeau bugs and gcc featuresPotatoswatter2009/08/27 10:28 AM
                                                                                                                  wacky C++ featuresRichard Cownie2009/08/26 08:17 AM
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                                                                                                          Windows vs Unix/Linux culturerwessel2009/08/24 02:09 PM
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                                                                                                        EncapsulationKonrad Schwarz2009/09/03 03:49 AM
                                                                                                          Encapsulationanon2009/09/03 09:05 AM
                                                                                                          Encapsulation?2009/09/03 10:38 AM
                                                                                                          EncapsulationAndi Kleen2009/09/04 12:41 AM
                                                                                                            Encapsulationanon2009/09/04 06:24 AM
                                                                                                            EncapsulationRichard Cownie2009/09/04 06:34 AM
                                                                                                              EncapsulationKonrad Schwarz2009/09/07 02:28 AM
                                                                                                                EncapsulationRichard Cownie2009/09/07 03:04 PM
                                                                                                        Windows vs Unix/Linux culture?2009/09/03 10:51 AM
                                                                                                      Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureno thanks2009/08/23 09:36 AM
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                                                                                                                    Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureRichard Cownie2009/08/26 07:43 AM
                                                                                                                    Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureanon2009/08/26 12:48 PM
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                                                                                                                      Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureJasonB2009/08/26 07:06 PM
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                                                                                                                          Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureRob Thorpe2009/08/27 04:51 AM
                                                                                                        Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureJasonB2009/08/23 08:07 PM
                                                                                                          Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureno thanks2009/08/23 08:44 PM
                                                                                                            Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureJasonB2009/08/23 11:34 PM
                                                                                                        Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureanon2009/08/23 08:46 PM
                                                                                          limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/20 06:59 AM
                                                                                            limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/20 08:27 AM
                                                                                              limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/20 07:55 PM
                                                                                                limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/20 10:22 PM
                                                                                                  limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/20 11:15 PM
                                                                                                    limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/21 03:47 AM
                                                                                              limits of sorting?2009/08/20 10:42 PM
                                                                                                limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/21 06:51 AM
                                                                                                  limits of sortingMichael S2009/08/21 07:11 AM
                                                                                                    limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/21 07:38 AM
                                                                                            limits of sortingdmsc2009/08/20 06:56 PM
                                                                                              limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/20 07:20 PM
                                                                                          limits of sortingRob Thorpe2009/08/20 07:09 AM
                                                                              limits of sortingAaron Spink2009/08/19 11:19 PM
                                                                                limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/20 12:55 AM
                                                          limits of sortingMichael S2009/08/18 06:12 AM
                                                        limits of sortinghobold2009/08/18 06:55 AM
                                                          limits of sortingrwessel2009/09/08 01:52 PM
                                                            maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyEmil2009/09/08 06:06 PM
                                                              maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyrwessel2009/09/08 09:04 PM
                                                                maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyhobold2009/09/09 03:56 AM
                                                              maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyRichard Cownie2009/09/09 08:10 AM
                                                                maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyhobold2009/09/10 04:39 AM
                                                                  maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyRichard Cownie2009/09/10 07:05 AM
                                                                    maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyPotatoswatter2009/09/10 12:23 PM
                                                                  maximal theoretical sorting efficiencydmsc2009/09/13 07:04 AM
                                                      limits of sortingPotatoswatter is back!2009/08/21 05:07 PM
                                                        indeed it doesn't succeed in partitioning at all, but you get the idea ;) (NT)Potatoswatter is back!2009/08/21 05:12 PM
                                                          indeed it doesn't succeed in partitioning at all, but you get the idea ;) (NT)Jouni Osmala2009/08/22 12:01 AM
                                                        limits of sortinghobold2009/08/22 06:25 AM
                                                          limits of sortingPotatoswatter2009/08/22 07:45 AM
                                                          limits of sortingDavid Kanter2009/08/22 09:16 AM
                                                            limits of sortingJouni Osmala2009/08/22 11:01 AM
                                                              Oops that was counting sort not bucket sort ;(Jouni Osmala2009/08/22 11:07 AM
                                                                close enough for my purposeshobold2009/08/22 01:15 PM
                                                            select vs. cmovehobold2009/08/22 01:25 PM
                                              How much IPCGian-Carlo Pascutto2009/08/18 02:25 AM
                                                How much IPCVincent Diepeveen2009/08/19 05:46 AM
                                                  How much IPC_Arthur2009/08/19 08:32 AM
                                              How much IPChobold2009/08/18 03:17 AM
                                                How much IPCMichael S2009/08/18 04:33 AM
                                                  How much IPChobold2009/08/18 06:35 AM
                                              How much IPC?2009/08/18 11:20 AM
                                                How much IPC_Arthur2009/08/18 11:33 AM
                                                  Nit pickingDavid Kanter2009/08/18 01:17 PM
                                                    Nit picking_Arthur2009/08/18 01:37 PM
                                                      Nit pickingMichael S2009/08/18 02:02 PM
                                                        Nit pickingS. Rao2009/08/18 04:02 PM
                                                          Nit pickinganon2009/08/19 02:03 AM
                                                    Nit pickingMichael S2009/08/18 01:53 PM
                                                      Nit pickingJasonB2009/08/18 06:16 PM
                                                  How much IPC?2009/08/18 01:37 PM
                                                    How much IPC_Arthur2009/08/18 03:23 PM
                                                      How much IPCMatt Sayler2009/08/18 05:09 PM
                                                      How much IPC?2009/08/18 10:59 PM
                                  nick's testcasea reader2009/08/17 04:47 PM
                                How much IPCTruePath2009/09/27 09:00 AM
                                  Explicit dependency chainsDavid Kanter2009/09/30 06:56 PM
                                How much IPCTruePath2009/09/27 09:00 AM
                              How much IPChobold2009/08/17 05:38 AM
                            How much IPCanon2009/08/16 08:59 PM
                            Speeing Up Single ThreadsTruePath2009/09/27 07:58 AM
                      How much IPCanon2009/08/15 07:01 PM
                        How much IPCEduardoS2009/08/16 06:06 AM
                        How much IPCsJ2009/08/16 08:48 PM
              Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/14 02:26 PM
                Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingLinus Torvalds2009/08/14 03:04 PM
              Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/21 02:43 PM
                Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingLinus Torvalds2009/08/21 03:08 PM
                  Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingLinus Torvalds2009/08/21 03:33 PM
                    Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/22 07:57 AM
                      Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJukka Larja2009/08/22 10:04 PM
                        Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/25 11:33 AM
                  Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensing?2009/08/21 11:51 PM
                    Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/22 09:56 AM
                      Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingLinus Torvalds2009/08/22 10:38 AM
                      Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensing?2009/08/23 03:05 AM
                        Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingEduardoS2009/08/23 03:28 AM
                          Programming Larrabee?2009/08/23 05:48 AM
                            Programming LarrabeeEduardoS2009/08/23 06:41 AM
                              Programming Larrabeeanon2009/08/23 07:29 AM
                            Programming LarrabeePotatoswatter2009/08/23 06:47 AM
                              Programming LarrabeeRichard Cownie2009/08/23 08:11 AM
                                Programming LarrabeePotatoswatter2009/08/23 11:49 PM
                              Programming Larrabee?2009/08/23 08:59 AM
                                Programming LarrabeePotatoswatter2009/08/23 11:44 PM
                                Programming Larrabeehobold2009/08/24 05:41 AM
                                  Programming Larrabeenone2009/08/24 07:15 AM
                                    Programming LarrabeeRichard Cownie2009/08/24 07:33 AM
                                    Programming LarrabeeJukka Larja2009/08/24 09:30 PM
                                      Programming Larrabeenone2009/08/25 01:53 AM
                            Programming Larrabeempx2009/08/25 08:16 AM
                  Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJoe2009/08/24 08:38 AM
            Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingGabriele Svelto2009/08/14 03:35 AM
              Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/14 08:18 AM
                Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingEduardoS2009/08/14 04:34 PM
                  Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/15 06:30 AM
                    Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/15 07:23 AM
                improving NetburstAM2009/08/15 01:36 AM
                  improving Netburstanon2009/08/15 07:10 AM
                    improving NetburstEuronymous2009/08/15 08:35 AM
                    improving NetburstMichael S2009/08/15 01:18 PM
                Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/21 03:10 PM
                  Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/22 09:46 AM
                    Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/25 09:39 AM
                      Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingslacker2009/08/26 04:50 AM
                        Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/26 08:12 AM
                        Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/26 08:45 AM
                          Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingsomeone2009/08/26 10:29 AM
                            Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingDavid Kanter2009/08/26 10:47 AM
          Not necessarilyDaniel Bizó2009/08/14 02:53 AM
        new POWER7 info ..Thu Nguyen2009/08/25 03:05 AM
          new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/25 05:47 AM
            new POWER7 info ..hobold2009/08/25 06:50 AM
              new POWER7 info ..G Webb2009/08/25 11:49 PM
            new POWER7 info ..mpx2009/08/25 07:36 AM
              new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/25 08:16 AM
                new POWER7 info ..Jesper Frimann2009/08/27 08:18 AM
                  new POWER7 info ..Linus Torvalds2009/08/27 10:53 AM
                  new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/27 12:00 PM
                    new POWER7 info ..a reader2009/08/27 03:21 PM
                      new POWER7 info ..David Kanter2009/08/27 08:32 PM
                        new POWER7 info ..a reader2009/08/28 07:45 AM
                    new POWER7 info ..hobold2009/08/28 04:00 AM
                      new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/28 05:51 AM
                        new POWER7 info ..hobold2009/08/28 06:44 AM
                          new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/28 07:10 AM
                        Non Autopar submissions for NehalemIlleglWpns2009/08/28 09:41 AM
                          Non Autopar submissions for NehalemDavid Kanter2009/08/28 10:07 AM
                          Non Autopar submissions for Nehalemsomeone2009/08/28 11:00 AM
          new POWER7 info ..mas2009/08/25 11:25 PM
            An EV8 lite? (NT)anon2009/08/26 08:21 AM
              An EV8 lite? => Piranha?M.2009/08/30 03:54 AM
            new POWER7 info ..Mark Roulo2009/08/27 05:51 AM
              new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/27 06:03 AM
                new POWER7 info ..a reader2009/08/27 08:55 AM
                  new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/27 10:58 AM
                    new POWER7 info ..a reader2009/08/27 03:11 PM
                      new POWER7 info ..Gabriele Svelto2009/08/27 11:17 PM
                      new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/28 04:27 AM
                        new POWER7 info ..a reader2009/08/28 08:07 AM
                        OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/28 10:15 AM
                          OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/28 10:39 AM
                            OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/28 12:55 PM
                              OOOE for low powerMark Roulo2009/08/28 02:16 PM
                                OOOE for low powerMark Roulo2009/08/28 02:44 PM
                                  Atom uarchDavid Kanter2009/08/28 07:19 PM
                                OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/28 07:07 PM
                              OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/28 03:18 PM
                                OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/29 12:55 AM
                                  OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/29 06:21 AM
                                    OOOE for low powera reader2009/08/29 08:14 AM
                                      OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/29 08:56 AM
                                        OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/29 09:08 AM
                                      OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/08/29 10:27 AM
                                        OOOE for low powera reader2009/08/29 03:50 PM
                                        OOOE for low poweranonymous2009/08/29 06:17 PM
                                          OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/08/29 11:07 PM
                                            OOOE for low powerJonathan Kang2009/09/01 04:44 AM
                                              OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/09/01 03:21 PM
                                                OOOE for low powerMark Roulo2009/09/01 04:53 PM
                                                  OOOE for low powerWilco2009/09/02 01:27 AM
                                                    OOOE for low powerMark Roulo2009/09/02 07:46 AM
                                                      OOOE for low powerWilco2009/09/02 03:52 PM
                                                    Define "emulate" (NT)Michael S2009/09/02 10:44 PM
                                                      Define "emulate"Wilco2009/09/02 11:33 PM
                                                        Define "emulate"none2009/09/03 03:46 AM
                                                          Define "emulate"Adrian2009/09/03 09:45 AM
                                                          Define "emulate"Wilco2009/09/03 01:20 PM
                                                            Define "emulate"none2009/09/03 09:41 PM
                                                              Define "emulate"Wilco2009/09/04 02:30 AM
                                                  low power ARM chipsMichael S2009/10/31 01:32 PM
                                                    low power ARM chipsGabriele Svelto2009/10/31 03:05 PM
                                                      low power ARM chipsMichael S2009/10/31 03:45 PM
                                                        low power ARM chipst2009/10/31 04:21 PM
                                    OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/29 09:07 AM
                                      OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/29 11:40 AM
                                        OOOE for low powera reader2009/08/29 04:03 PM
                                        OOOE for low poweranonymous2009/08/29 06:13 PM
                                          OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/30 06:35 AM
                                            OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/30 01:32 PM
                                            OOOE for low powerMatt Sayler2009/08/31 12:38 PM
                                        OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/30 11:07 AM
                                    OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/08/29 10:44 AM
                                  TTMMichael S2009/08/29 11:24 AM
                                    TTMFoo_2009/08/29 12:40 PM
                                      TTMMichael S2009/08/29 01:10 PM
                                        TTManon2009/08/29 06:33 PM
                                          TTMJukka Larja2009/08/29 08:49 PM
                                            TTManon2009/08/30 05:07 AM
                                              TTMJukka Larja2009/08/30 08:31 PM
                                                Area, power and AtomDavid Kanter2009/08/30 09:36 PM
                                                  Area, power and AtomMichael S2009/08/30 11:18 PM
                                                    Area, power and Atoma reader2009/08/31 07:44 AM
                                                      Area, power and AtomMichael S2009/08/31 11:19 AM
                                                        Area, power and Atoma reader2009/08/31 01:53 PM
                                                          Area, power and Atomanonymous2009/08/31 03:17 PM
                                                        Area, power and AtomGabriele Svelto2009/08/31 02:41 PM
                                                          64-bit disabled AtomsFoo_2009/09/02 03:38 AM
                                                            64-bit disabled AtomsRobert David Graham2009/09/02 11:56 AM
                                                              64-bit disabled Atomsanon2009/09/02 01:14 PM
                                                              64-bit disabled Atomsanonymous2009/09/02 03:30 PM
                                                TTMMichael S2009/08/30 10:49 PM
                                                  TTMJukka Larja2009/08/31 10:23 PM
                                            TTMPaul2009/08/30 05:38 AM
                                            TTMPaul2009/08/30 05:40 AM
                                        TTMMark Roulo2009/08/30 08:50 AM
                                          TTMPaul2009/08/30 08:54 AM
                                            TTMMark Roulo2009/08/30 09:16 AM
                                        TTMFoo_2009/09/02 03:31 AM
                                  OOOE for low powerRob Thorpe2009/08/30 08:19 AM
                                OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/08/29 10:16 AM
                                  OOOE for low powerJukka Larja2009/08/29 08:40 PM
                                    OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/08/29 11:04 PM
                          OOOE and cache/mem sizesRichard Cownie2009/08/28 04:30 PM
                            OOOE and cache/mem sizesLinus Torvalds2009/08/31 09:53 PM
                              OOOE and cache/mem sizesRichard Cownie2009/09/01 03:15 AM
                                OOOE and pipe length etc.AM2009/09/01 07:35 AM
                                  OOOE and pipe length etc.Jouni Osmala2009/09/01 07:57 AM
                                    OOOE and clock rateAM2009/09/02 12:34 AM
                                      OOOE and clock rateJouni Osmala2009/09/02 04:35 AM
                                        OOOE and clock rateMartin Høyer Kristiansen2009/09/02 05:19 AM
                                          OOOE and clock rateanon2009/09/02 08:43 PM
                                        OOOE and clock rateAM2009/09/03 01:52 AM
                                          OOOE and clock rateJouni Osmala2009/09/03 06:34 AM
                                            OOOE impactsAM2009/09/04 01:04 AM
                                              OOOE impactsDavid Kanter2009/09/04 09:12 AM
                                              OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/06 11:16 AM
                                                OOOE impactsAM2009/09/07 02:47 AM
                                                  OOOE impactsMartin Høyer Kristiansen2009/09/07 05:03 AM
                                                    Does IBM lie about PPC603 being OoO chip?AM2009/09/08 02:13 AM
                                                      No, but...Michael S2009/09/08 06:05 AM
                                                        No, but...hobold2009/09/09 04:09 AM
                                                  OOOE impactsJS2009/09/07 05:34 AM
                                                    Are Sandpile and others wrong about 0.28 um?AM2009/09/08 02:12 AM
                                                    OOOE impactssomeone2009/09/08 05:43 AM
                                                  OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/07 06:48 AM
                                                    OOOE costsDavid Kanter2009/09/07 11:07 AM
                                                    OOOE impactsAM2009/09/08 02:11 AM
                                                      OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/10 12:53 AM
                                                        OOOE impactsAM2009/09/11 03:35 AM
                                                          OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/11 07:38 AM
                                                            OOOE impactsAM2009/09/12 04:06 AM
                                                              OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/12 10:36 PM
                                                                OOOE impactsAM2009/09/14 03:39 AM
                                                                  OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/14 05:18 AM
                                                                    if-ex distanceAM2009/09/15 04:16 AM
                                                                    small addendumAM2009/09/19 02:54 AM
                                                                      small addendumJouni Osmala2009/09/19 08:51 PM
                                                                        small addendumAM2009/09/20 05:54 AM
                                                                          small addendumJouni Osmala2009/09/20 12:16 PM
                                                                            small addendumThiago Kurovski2009/09/20 03:51 PM
                                                                              small addendumJouni Osmala2009/09/20 08:21 PM
                                                                                small addendumThiago Kurovski2009/09/21 05:59 AM
                                                                            small addendumAM2009/09/21 02:14 AM
                                                                              small addendumJukka Larja2009/09/21 09:21 PM
                                                                                small addendumAM2009/09/22 02:01 AM
                                                                                  small addendumJukka Larja2009/09/22 10:31 PM
                                                                                    small addendumAM2009/09/23 07:35 AM
                                                                                      small addendumJukka Larja2009/09/23 09:31 PM
                                                                                        small addendumAM2009/09/23 11:13 PM
                                                                                          OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/09/24 08:39 PM
                                                                                            OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/25 04:18 AM
                                                                                              Back to bitsMichael S2009/09/25 06:14 AM
                                                                                                Back to bitsThiago Kurovski2009/09/25 10:24 AM
                                                                                                  Back to bitsWilco2009/09/25 02:18 PM
                                                                                                    Back to bitsThiago Kurovski2009/09/26 08:12 AM
                                                                                                  Back to bitsMichael S2009/09/26 07:54 AM
                                                                                                    Back to bitsThiago Kurovski2009/09/26 08:05 AM
                                                                                                      Back to bitsMichael S2009/09/26 08:16 AM
                                                                                                Agree, with very minor change.Jouni Osmala2009/09/25 08:37 PM
                                                                                                Back to bitsAM2009/09/26 05:16 AM
                                                                                                  Back to bitsMichael S2009/09/26 08:13 AM
                                                                                              OT metadiscussionDavid Kanter2009/09/25 11:23 AM
                                                                                                OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/26 04:55 AM
                                                                                              OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/09/25 10:33 PM
                                                                                                OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/26 04:50 AM
                                                                                                  OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/09/27 01:16 AM
                                                                                                    OT metadiscussionMichael S2009/09/27 03:58 AM
                                                                                                      OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/28 03:07 AM
                                                                                                    OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/28 02:43 AM
                                                                                                      OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/09/28 11:45 PM
                                                                                                        OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/30 02:13 AM
                                                                                                          OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/10/01 12:34 AM
                                                                                                            OT metadiscussionAM2009/10/01 03:05 AM
                                                                                                              OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/10/01 11:38 PM
                                                                                                                OT metadiscussionAM2009/10/03 06:19 AM
                                                                                                                  OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/10/04 02:38 AM
                                                                                                                    OT metadiscussionAM2009/10/04 07:27 AM
                                                                                                                      OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/10/04 10:48 PM
                                                                                                                        OT metadiscussionAM2009/10/05 06:13 AM
                                                                                                                          About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/05 10:36 PM
                                                                                                                            About teachingAM2009/10/06 03:37 AM
                                                                                                                              About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/07 02:15 AM
                                                                                                                                About teachinganon2009/10/07 11:39 AM
                                                                                                                                About teachingAM2009/10/08 02:11 AM
                                                                                                                                  About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/09 03:10 AM
                                                                                                                                    About teachingAM2009/10/09 04:40 AM
                                                                                                                                      About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/09 08:02 PM
                                                                                                                                        About teachingAM2009/10/09 10:24 PM
                                                                                                                                          About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/10 09:50 PM
                                                                                                                                            About teachingAM2009/10/12 01:02 AM
                                                                                                                                              About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/12 09:51 PM
                                                                                                                                                About teachingAM2009/10/13 03:06 AM
                                                                                                                                                  About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/13 10:33 PM
                                                                                                                                                    About teachingAM2009/10/14 02:36 AM
                                                                                                                                                      About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/14 07:19 PM
                                                                                                                                                        About teachingAM2009/10/15 03:22 AM
                                                                                                                                          About teachingSalvatore De Dominicis2009/10/12 01:23 AM
                                                                                                                                            About teachingDean Kent2009/10/12 11:25 AM
                                                                                                                                              About teachingSalvatore De Dominicis2009/10/13 01:11 AM
                                                                                                OT metadiscussionSeni2009/09/26 05:26 AM
                                                                                                  OT metadiscussionWilco2009/09/26 07:08 AM
                                                                                                  OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/09/27 01:18 AM
                                                                                                    OT metadiscussionMichael S2009/09/27 04:12 AM
                                                                                          small addendumJouni Osmala2009/09/24 09:04 PM
                                                                                            small addendumAM2009/09/25 04:04 AM
                                                                                            extra stage in EV6AM2009/09/26 05:29 AM
                                                    PPC603 does OoOEhobold2009/09/08 04:40 AM
                                                  OOOE impactssomeone2009/09/08 04:39 AM
                                                    EV6AM2009/09/09 03:33 AM
                                      OOOE and clock rateSeni2009/09/02 08:11 AM
                                        OOOE and clock rateLinus Torvalds2009/09/02 05:48 PM
                                          OOOE and clock rateanon2009/09/02 10:55 PM
                                            OOOE and clock rateWilco2009/09/02 11:44 PM
                                              OOOE and clock rateJouni Osmala2009/09/03 12:02 AM
                                                OOOE and ItaniumAM2009/09/03 12:27 AM
                                                OOOE and clock rateMartin Høyer Kristiansen2009/09/03 02:41 AM
                                              OOOE and clock rateanon2009/09/03 12:12 AM
                                                OOOE and clock rateWilco2009/09/03 01:10 AM
                                            POWER6 skewed pipelinePaul A. Clayton2009/09/03 10:22 AM
                                              POWER6 skewed pipelineAnon42009/09/03 06:00 PM
                                          OOOE and clock rateMr. Camel2009/09/03 02:40 AM
                                          OOOE and clock rateRichard Cownie2009/09/03 05:42 AM
                                  OOOE and pipe length etc.Richard Cownie2009/09/01 08:01 AM
                                    OOOE and pipe length etc.AM2009/09/02 12:32 AM
                                      OOOE and pipe length etc.Richard Cownie2009/09/02 06:49 AM
                                        LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/03 12:40 AM
                                          LRB choice of P54Gian-Carlo Pascutto2009/09/03 12:45 AM
                                            LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/03 02:18 AM
                                              LRB choice of P54Gian-Carlo Pascutto2009/09/03 02:55 AM
                                                LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/03 03:28 AM
                                                  LRB choice of P54Gian-Carlo Pascutto2009/09/03 04:29 AM
                                                    Amount of cache per core matters,and mem bandwith too (NT)Jouni Osmala2009/09/03 06:44 AM
                                                    LRB choice of P54rwessel2009/09/03 01:31 PM
                                                    LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/04 01:24 AM
                                                  LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/03 05:40 AM
                                                    LRB choice of P54a reader2009/09/03 08:20 AM
                                                      LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/03 04:57 PM
                                                    LRB choice of P54Jonathan Kang2009/09/03 01:30 PM
                                                      LRB choice of P54David Kanter2009/09/03 03:38 PM
                                                        LRB choice of P54Jonathan Kang2009/09/04 07:16 AM
                                                      LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/03 05:07 PM
                                                        LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/04 01:20 AM
                                                        LRB choice of P54Jonathan Kang2009/09/04 07:13 AM
                                                          LRB choice of P54Dan Downs2009/09/04 07:38 AM
                                                            LRB choice of P54Dan Downs2009/09/05 03:36 AM
                                                              LRB choice of P54Anon2009/09/05 01:44 PM
                                                          LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/04 11:12 PM
                                                    LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/04 01:18 AM
                                                      LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/04 07:18 PM
                                                        LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/04 10:53 PM
                                                          LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/05 03:06 AM
                                                            LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/05 08:14 AM
                                                  LRB choice of P54 - Layout?Anonymous2009/09/03 01:40 PM
                                                    LRB choice of P54 - Layout?anonymous2009/09/03 02:54 PM
                                                  LRB choice of P54Jukka Larja2009/09/03 08:58 PM
                                                  LRB choice of P54mpx2009/09/04 03:07 AM
                                          LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/03 01:02 AM
                                        OOOE and pipe length etc.Gian-Carlo Pascutto2009/09/03 12:40 AM
                                      Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Mark Roulo2009/09/03 03:26 PM
                                        Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Michael S2009/09/03 04:14 PM
                                          Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Mark Roulo2009/09/04 09:05 AM
                                            Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Jonathan Kang2009/09/04 09:59 AM
                                            Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Michael S2009/09/05 08:58 AM
                                            Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386James2009/09/07 02:15 AM
                                              Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Mark Roulo2009/09/07 06:44 PM
                                      OOOE and pipe length etc.Michael S2009/09/03 04:42 PM
                                        LRB coreAM2009/09/04 01:09 AM
                                          LRB coreMichael S2009/09/04 04:07 AM
                                            LRB coreanon2009/09/04 07:27 PM
                                              LRB coreMichael S2009/09/05 09:12 AM
                                                LRB coreanon2009/09/05 10:03 PM
                                                  reasons for split I/D L1 cachesMichael S2009/09/06 03:10 AM
                                                    reasons for split I/D L1 cachesanon2009/09/06 05:32 AM
                                                      reasons for split I/D L1 caches?2009/09/06 09:35 AM
                                                        reasons for split I/D L1 cachesmegol2009/09/06 02:39 PM
                                                          reasons for split I/D L1 caches?2009/09/07 03:20 AM
                                                            reasons for split I/D L1 cachesanon2009/09/07 05:25 AM
                                                              cache hinting?2009/09/07 06:10 AM
                                                                cache hintinganon2009/09/07 06:35 AM
                                                                  cache hinting?2009/09/07 08:10 AM
                                                                    cache hintinganon2009/09/07 08:49 AM
                                                                      cache hinting?2009/09/07 09:37 AM
                                              Split and unified cachesDavid Kanter2009/09/06 12:38 PM
                                                Split and unified cachesanon2009/09/06 10:15 PM
                                                  Split and unified cachesMichael S2009/09/06 11:40 PM
                                                    Split and unified cachesanon2009/09/07 01:24 AM
                                                  Split and unified cachesDavid Kanter2009/09/06 11:51 PM
                                                    Split and unified cachesanon2009/09/07 01:13 AM
                                            LRB coreAM2009/09/04 11:08 PM
                                            LRB coreLinus Torvalds2009/09/05 09:47 AM
                                          LRB coreDavid Kanter2009/09/04 12:23 PM
                                            LRB coreAnon2009/09/04 05:32 PM
                                              LRB coreDavid Kanter2009/09/04 09:15 PM
                                              LRB coreMichael S2009/09/05 09:21 AM
                              OOOE and cache/mem sizesa reader2009/09/01 08:19 AM
                                OOOE and cache/mem sizesRichard Cownie2009/09/01 08:43 AM
                      snapdraon?Michael S2009/08/28 05:10 AM
                        snapdraon?a reader2009/08/28 07:51 AM
                          Thanks (NT)Michael S2009/08/29 11:53 AM
                        snapdraon?Paul2009/08/28 12:12 PM
              new POWER7 info ..EduardoS2009/08/27 02:41 PM
                new POWER7 info ..Jesper Frimann2009/08/28 04:03 AM
                  Single threaded performanceDavid Kanter2009/08/28 09:52 AM
  Hot Chips XXI Preview onlinehobold2009/08/13 06:30 AM
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