wacky C++ features

Article: Hot Chips XXI Preview
By: JasonB (no.delete@this.spam.com), August 25, 2009 8:56 pm
Room: Moderated Discussions
Richard Cownie (tich@pobox.com) on 8/25/09 wrote:
>JasonB (no@spam.com) on 8/25/09 wrote:
>>Strictly speaking you can use separate compilation of templates with definitions
>>in a separate .cpp file (and only declarations in the header,
>Yes. But that's a homebrew method.

I wouldn't call it "homebrew", it's a perfectly valid and legal way of separating implementation from interface, it's just not very practical.

>The standard defines
>a "standard" way to do it. Which turns out to useless,
>because no-one implements it.

Apparently Comeau C++ and Borland C++ Builder X implement it. But export is an attempt to extend a nice principle (namely compilation of implementation only once) to templates, and the lack of it is hardly a show-stopper.

For readability purposes we often separate interface from implementation by declaring the implementation outside of the class, in a separate file, that is #included at the end of the header. The only real downside to this compared to the normal separation is that the template will be recompiled for each cpp file it is used in rather than just once, i.e. it's a compilation performance issue -- but even then it's not a big one because VC++ supports precompiled headers anyway. Importantly it does not affect the final result in any way because the linker will automatically remove all duplicate copies of the same instantiation (i.e. if you use a vector of ints in every compilation unit in your project you will still only have exactly one implementation of vector for ints in your final exe; of course if the compiler chooses to inline some of the routines then they could be all over the place, but whether a method is inlined is completely orthogonal to whether it was declared inline, and in VC++ even routines compiled into separate compilation units can be ultimately inlined with Whole Program Optimisation enabled. Conversely, the compiler will generally not inline recursive functions, "large" functions, or functions that you take the address of, even if they are declared inline).

>It's a question of
>"culture", i.e. the body of experience and knowledge
>about techniques and tools. If a super-intelligent
>alien came to Earth and tried to write programs simply
>by reading the C++ standard, they'd write programs that
>wouldn't even compile, let alone run correctly.

If they happened to make the mistake of using the export keyword with the majority of compilers, yes. What is your point? It's one feature added at the last minute in the current standard that almost nobody uses and very few vendors implement because it's not really necessary. The C++ standards committee even put removing it to a vote and ended up deciding to leave it in there since there were now implementations and some people using it, although most would probably agree it was a mistake to include it in the first place. So? Sometimes that happens, it doesn't invalidate everything else.

>>>dynamic_cast (because it
>>>didn't - maybe still doesn't ? - work correctly in g++),
>>dynamic_cast isn't needed all that often, but when it is needed there is no substitute.
>The substitute is that you put a whole bunch of extra
>virtual methods on every class in your hierarchy for
>casting to every other class. Which is N-squared in
>the number of classes, so it's really ugly.

Should I have said "there is no practical substitute"?

>>In keeping with C++'s general philosophy, however, you >need to have RTTI enabled in order for it to work.
>I think you're talking specifically about MSVC++ there ?

I don't think so -- I imagine most compilers allow RTTI (and exception support) to be enabled or disabled because enabling them imposes a cost and if you don't use dynamic_cast (or exceptions) in your code at all you can avoid paying that cost, which is one of the main principles of C++ (i.e. you don't pay for what you don't use; cf. methods not being virtual by default). In g++ at least the switch to disable RTTI appears to be "-fno-rtti".

I just searched through our code and we never use dynamic_cast for any of our own code -- properly designed application-level OO code has very few uses for casting. The OTT use of casting in Java, for example, is because in earlier versions all containers had to contain Objects and you always had to use a cast every time you retrieved something from the container; in C++ you just use templated containers that check at compile time that you're only inserting and retrieving objects of the specified type.

We only ever use it to cast pointers returned by the MFC framework that should always be what it is expected but it's just making sure. We also have our own cast that does a dynamic_cast in debug mode and a static_cast in release mode for the same types of things.

>>Exceptions, when only used for exceptional stuff (i.e. not for routine errors,
>>like Java does), are useful. As I mentioned before, we put try-catch blocks at the
>>"user level" of individual operations and do the work off to the side so that if
>>anything goes wrong with the operation itself no damage is done and we can simply
>>tell the user the operation couldn't be performed.
>Sure, but used like that it doesn't add much beyond
>what setjmp/longjmp give you.

Well, off the top of my head I can see two serious obstacles to using setjmp/longjmp as a substitute for exceptions.

The first is practicality: the amount of housekeeping you would need to do and the unacceptable level of coupling and co-operation between completely different levels of your program would be a nightmare to both implement and maintain.

With exceptions you can freely choose at any level to handle any subset of any possible exceptions without ever having to worry about anything falling through the cracks, and without having intimate knowledge of the implementation of the code that you are calling. It might be perfectly reasonable, for example, to handle an out-of-memory exception at a relatively low level in a certain case, but want to let an illegal access violation pass up to a much higher level where your "I'm sorry, please let me submit this bug report for you" handler can take care of it and then continue on.

The second is functionality: throwing an exception guarantees the destruction of all objects on the stack from the thrower to the catcher, allowing RAII to be used to guarantee no resources leak and the program to be exception safe (to the point where it is possible to file a bug report with the server related to the particular operation that was attempted, and then allow the user to continue on in exactly the same state they were in prior to attempting that operation with a warning that they probably should not attempt that particular operation again until the bug has been fixed).

>And mediocre developers
>tend to say "we'll use exceptions" as a *substitute* for
>actually designing an error-handling strategy.

I really don't care what mediocre developers will do. Mediocre developers will always find ways to do things wrong. If I wanted to limit my options by excluding anything mediocre programmers might get wrong I'd be using Java, not C++, and even then I wouldn't have achieved much. (Find me an exception-safe Java program...)

>>Writing exception-safe code is hard, but doing so is worth it.
>Possibly, if you design it in from the beginning. But
>taking millions of lines of exception-unsafe code and
>trying to make it exception-safe is infeasible. And
>I *really* don't like features that require a global
>change in assumptions and coding practices: that makes
>it a big cost.

Actually, it wasn't all that hard for us. For the most part we have exception handlers around the user-level operations and we make those high-level routines exception safe -- in the worst case we simply report the problem to the user and the program is in exactly the same state it was in before.

>>Note that, on Windows at least, underlying CPU and OS exceptions can be mapped
>>into the language (structured exceptions) and handled just like any other exception.
>>Even if you don't use exceptions yourself, writing exception-safe code means you
>>can automatically do something nicer than core dump when there's a bug in your code.
>Up to a point. If the exception is saying "something
>really screwy just happened in your code", then trying
>to catch it with an exception handler that does a lot
>of complicated stuff may not be robust.

Our exception handlers are of the form:

try {
} catch (const structured_exception& e){
// Ooh, this shouldn't happen. Most likely a bug.
} catch (const std::exception& e){
// A standard problem

structured_exception handles the following errors:

"Access violation", "Array bounds exceeded", "Datatype misalignment", "Float: Denormal operand", "Float: Divide by zero", "Float: Inexact result", "Float: Invalid operation", "Float: Overflow", "Float: Stack check", "Float: Underflow", "Illegal instruction", "In page error", "Integer: Divide by zero", "Integer: Overflow", "Privileged instruction", "Stack overflow", "Breakpoint"*, "Single step"*, "Noncontinuable exception", "Invalid disposition", "Guard page", and "Invalid handle". (The two with *'s are actually invoked when you're running the program in the debugger; we actually don't try to catch those.)

It contains the value of every register, the full stack trace, and extra values related to the type of error. So, for example, our code for handling an access violation extracts the location that the code attempted to write to thus:

if (record.ExceptionCode == EXCEPTION_ACCESS_VIOLATION && record.NumberParameters == 2){
os << ": Attempted to " << (record.ExceptionInformation[0] == 0 ? "read from" : "write to") <<
" address 0x" << setw(8) << record.ExceptionInformation[1];

Although having a bug in your code is undesirable, we've found it's better to be upfront about it and not having the program die taking all of the data generated so far with it goes a long way to overcoming the negative impression. If you encapsulate the operation properly so that no matter what went wrong at what stage, everything else is still OK, the biggest problem from the user's point of view is that they are unable to perform that particular operation (at least with the parameters or data they attempted to perform it with).

The std::exception stuff is more "normal" and can include things like running out of memory (although you may well have a "catch (const std::bad_alloc& e)" closer to the site where the memory was actually being used if there's a chance something else can be done about it, while letting all other standard exceptions through to the keeper).

>I don't see a compelling argument for exceptions
>compared to setjmp/longjmp (and signal handling for the
>OS stuff). Exceptions fit better in languages with
>garbage collection.

On the contrary, I think languages with GC are far worse for exception handling.

GC typically implies non-deterministic object destruction. Non-deterministic object destruction implies RAII cannot be used. Not being able to use RAII makes it nearly impossible to write exception-safe code.

To give you an example using C-style code (because the standard C++ equivalents use RAII internally already), consider the following code using scopeguard:

char* ptr = (char*) malloc(10);
if (ptr == NULL)
return false; // or throw, or whatever
ON_BLOCK_EXIT(free, ptr); // free(ptr) is *guaranteed* to be called when this block exits, no matter what.

FILE* fp = fopen("test","r");
if (fp == NULL)
return false; //or throw, or whatever
ON_BLOCK_EXIT(fclose, fp); // fclose(fp) is *guaranteed* to be called when this block exist, no matter what.

This not only simplifies code (no nested if statements to handle resource acquisition and release -- e.g. you can safely return or throw if you fail to open the file in the second case without having to worry about the memory being freed) but it also makes it more robust, because (as the comments suggest) the "undo" operations (free and fclose) are guaranteed to be called no matter what -- even if you trigger a CPU exception.

(Of course, the C++ equivalent would be:

auto_ptr ap(new char[10]);

ifstream ifs("test");
if (!ifs)
return false; //or throw, or whatever

because, as I said, the standard library classes already use RAII themselves.)

>And even the benefit is questionable:
>with modern cpu's, checking a return code and taking an
>extremely-predictable branch usually costs nothing,
>so exceptions don't make the code any faster.

It's not about speed. It's about making errors hard to ignore (e.g. failing to allocate memory in the C++ example above will cause an exception to be thrown) and taking care of the housekeeping should you wish to handle the error at a much different level to the one that caused the error.

In the coffee making example, if anything goes wrong with the coffee making operation the important result is that the user does not get a cup of coffee, so it's reasonable to put a catch-all at the top level of that operation that apologises profusely and suggests a cup of tea instead. However, if there is an error in the coffee-making process that can be recovered from at a lower level, then the programmer can selectively handle that case at the appropriate level and the high-level code will be none the wiser.

Importantly, nobody has to get all the error handling and propagating code just right at all the levels between where the error occurred and where the error can be reasonably handled because the compiler will take care of the tedious and error-prone housekeeping for you.

>And the
>frequent - maybe usual - consequence of separating out
>the "exceptional" case from the normal case is that the
>code for the "exceptional" case never gets written at
>all ...

And how is that more likely than the return value from the function not being checked every single time it is called? You have to make sure you check the result of every malloc or risk undefined behaviour; with new, you can safely have a whole series of allocations handled by a single catch if all of them should be considered "atomic" in the success of the operation (i.e. you only bother dealing with a particular one at the location it occurs if there is something useful you can do to recover in that instance).

>>Not surprisingly, then, I actually find it quite useful. :-) The two big benefits
>>over the old equivalents are type safety (mismatching format specifiers with actual
>>parameter types)
>gcc/g++ can provide warnings for printf format-vs-type
>mismatches, which is handy.

That is nice. There is also a Boost Format library that implements a type-safe replacement for printf, although I don't really like the syntax.

>>as built-in classes (you can't add support for your class >to printf's format string).
>No, but you could write a char* Foo::Text(void); method
>and use a %s string format specifier. So the difference
>is minimal.

But there. I like languages where user-defined classes are indistinguishable from build-in classes, and if we ignore the legacy C portions of C++ then C++ has that.

Besides, I like lexical_cast as a way of transferring data between types, and that's built on streams.

int i = lexical_cast(str);
string s = lexical_cast(i);
// s == str
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                                                                                                            Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureRichard Cownie2009/08/24 12:10 AM
                                                                                                              Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureJukka Larja2009/08/24 10:13 PM
                                                                                                              Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureJasonB2009/08/24 11:35 PM
                                                                                                                Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureRichard Cownie2009/08/25 03:04 AM
                                                                                                                  Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureJasonB2009/08/25 11:48 PM
                                                                                                                    Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureRichard Cownie2009/08/26 08:28 AM
                                                                                                                      Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureJasonB2009/08/26 10:31 PM
                                                                                                                    Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureRichard Cownie2009/08/26 08:43 AM
                                                                                                                    Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureanon2009/08/26 01:48 PM
                                                                                                                      Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureRichard Cownie2009/08/26 03:28 PM
                                                                                                                      Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureJasonB2009/08/26 08:06 PM
                                                                                                                        Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureRichard Cownie2009/08/27 03:44 AM
                                                                                                                          Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureRob Thorpe2009/08/27 05:51 AM
                                                                                                        Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureJasonB2009/08/23 09:07 PM
                                                                                                          Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureno thanks2009/08/23 09:44 PM
                                                                                                            Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureJasonB2009/08/24 12:34 AM
                                                                                                        Windows vs Unix/Linux cultureanon2009/08/23 09:46 PM
                                                                                          limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/20 07:59 AM
                                                                                            limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/20 09:27 AM
                                                                                              limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/20 08:55 PM
                                                                                                limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/20 11:22 PM
                                                                                                  limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/21 12:15 AM
                                                                                                    limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/21 04:47 AM
                                                                                              limits of sorting?2009/08/20 11:42 PM
                                                                                                limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/21 07:51 AM
                                                                                                  limits of sortingMichael S2009/08/21 08:11 AM
                                                                                                    limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/21 08:38 AM
                                                                                            limits of sortingdmsc2009/08/20 07:56 PM
                                                                                              limits of sortingRichard Cownie2009/08/20 08:20 PM
                                                                                          limits of sortingRob Thorpe2009/08/20 08:09 AM
                                                                              limits of sortingAaron Spink2009/08/20 12:19 AM
                                                                                limits of sortingJasonB2009/08/20 01:55 AM
                                                          limits of sortingMichael S2009/08/18 07:12 AM
                                                        limits of sortinghobold2009/08/18 07:55 AM
                                                          limits of sortingrwessel2009/09/08 02:52 PM
                                                            maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyEmil2009/09/08 07:06 PM
                                                              maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyrwessel2009/09/08 10:04 PM
                                                                maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyhobold2009/09/09 04:56 AM
                                                              maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyRichard Cownie2009/09/09 09:10 AM
                                                                maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyhobold2009/09/10 05:39 AM
                                                                  maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyRichard Cownie2009/09/10 08:05 AM
                                                                    maximal theoretical sorting efficiencyPotatoswatter2009/09/10 01:23 PM
                                                                  maximal theoretical sorting efficiencydmsc2009/09/13 08:04 AM
                                                      limits of sortingPotatoswatter is back!2009/08/21 06:07 PM
                                                        indeed it doesn't succeed in partitioning at all, but you get the idea ;) (NT)Potatoswatter is back!2009/08/21 06:12 PM
                                                          indeed it doesn't succeed in partitioning at all, but you get the idea ;) (NT)Jouni Osmala2009/08/22 01:01 AM
                                                        limits of sortinghobold2009/08/22 07:25 AM
                                                          limits of sortingPotatoswatter2009/08/22 08:45 AM
                                                          limits of sortingDavid Kanter2009/08/22 10:16 AM
                                                            limits of sortingJouni Osmala2009/08/22 12:01 PM
                                                              Oops that was counting sort not bucket sort ;(Jouni Osmala2009/08/22 12:07 PM
                                                                close enough for my purposeshobold2009/08/22 02:15 PM
                                                            select vs. cmovehobold2009/08/22 02:25 PM
                                              How much IPCGian-Carlo Pascutto2009/08/18 03:25 AM
                                                How much IPCVincent Diepeveen2009/08/19 06:46 AM
                                                  How much IPC_Arthur2009/08/19 09:32 AM
                                              How much IPChobold2009/08/18 04:17 AM
                                                How much IPCMichael S2009/08/18 05:33 AM
                                                  How much IPChobold2009/08/18 07:35 AM
                                              How much IPC?2009/08/18 12:20 PM
                                                How much IPC_Arthur2009/08/18 12:33 PM
                                                  Nit pickingDavid Kanter2009/08/18 02:17 PM
                                                    Nit picking_Arthur2009/08/18 02:37 PM
                                                      Nit pickingMichael S2009/08/18 03:02 PM
                                                        Nit pickingS. Rao2009/08/18 05:02 PM
                                                          Nit pickinganon2009/08/19 03:03 AM
                                                    Nit pickingMichael S2009/08/18 02:53 PM
                                                      Nit pickingJasonB2009/08/18 07:16 PM
                                                  How much IPC?2009/08/18 02:37 PM
                                                    How much IPC_Arthur2009/08/18 04:23 PM
                                                      How much IPCMatt Sayler2009/08/18 06:09 PM
                                                      How much IPC?2009/08/18 11:59 PM
                                  nick's testcasea reader2009/08/17 05:47 PM
                                How much IPCTruePath2009/09/27 10:00 AM
                                  Explicit dependency chainsDavid Kanter2009/09/30 07:56 PM
                                How much IPCTruePath2009/09/27 10:00 AM
                              How much IPChobold2009/08/17 06:38 AM
                            How much IPCanon2009/08/16 09:59 PM
                            Speeing Up Single ThreadsTruePath2009/09/27 08:58 AM
                      How much IPCanon2009/08/15 08:01 PM
                        How much IPCEduardoS2009/08/16 07:06 AM
                        How much IPCsJ2009/08/16 09:48 PM
              Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/14 03:26 PM
                Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingLinus Torvalds2009/08/14 04:04 PM
              Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/21 03:43 PM
                Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingLinus Torvalds2009/08/21 04:08 PM
                  Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingLinus Torvalds2009/08/21 04:33 PM
                    Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/22 08:57 AM
                      Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJukka Larja2009/08/22 11:04 PM
                        Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/25 12:33 PM
                  Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensing?2009/08/22 12:51 AM
                    Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/22 10:56 AM
                      Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingLinus Torvalds2009/08/22 11:38 AM
                      Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensing?2009/08/23 04:05 AM
                        Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingEduardoS2009/08/23 04:28 AM
                          Programming Larrabee?2009/08/23 06:48 AM
                            Programming LarrabeeEduardoS2009/08/23 07:41 AM
                              Programming Larrabeeanon2009/08/23 08:29 AM
                            Programming LarrabeePotatoswatter2009/08/23 07:47 AM
                              Programming LarrabeeRichard Cownie2009/08/23 09:11 AM
                                Programming LarrabeePotatoswatter2009/08/24 12:49 AM
                              Programming Larrabee?2009/08/23 09:59 AM
                                Programming LarrabeePotatoswatter2009/08/24 12:44 AM
                                Programming Larrabeehobold2009/08/24 06:41 AM
                                  Programming Larrabeenone2009/08/24 08:15 AM
                                    Programming LarrabeeRichard Cownie2009/08/24 08:33 AM
                                    Programming LarrabeeJukka Larja2009/08/24 10:30 PM
                                      Programming Larrabeenone2009/08/25 02:53 AM
                            Programming Larrabeempx2009/08/25 09:16 AM
                  Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJoe2009/08/24 09:38 AM
            Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingGabriele Svelto2009/08/14 04:35 AM
              Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/14 09:18 AM
                Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingEduardoS2009/08/14 05:34 PM
                  Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/15 07:30 AM
                    Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/15 08:23 AM
                improving NetburstAM2009/08/15 02:36 AM
                  improving Netburstanon2009/08/15 08:10 AM
                    improving NetburstEuronymous2009/08/15 09:35 AM
                    improving NetburstMichael S2009/08/15 02:18 PM
                Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/21 04:10 PM
                  Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensinganon2009/08/22 10:46 AM
                    Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/25 10:39 AM
                      Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingslacker2009/08/26 05:50 AM
                        Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/26 09:12 AM
                        Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingJonathan Kang2009/08/26 09:45 AM
                          Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingsomeone2009/08/26 11:29 AM
                            Power7 vs. single threaded performance and licensingDavid Kanter2009/08/26 11:47 AM
          Not necessarilyDaniel Bizó2009/08/14 03:53 AM
        new POWER7 info ..Thu Nguyen2009/08/25 04:05 AM
          new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/25 06:47 AM
            new POWER7 info ..hobold2009/08/25 07:50 AM
              new POWER7 info ..G Webb2009/08/26 12:49 AM
            new POWER7 info ..mpx2009/08/25 08:36 AM
              new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/25 09:16 AM
                new POWER7 info ..Jesper Frimann2009/08/27 09:18 AM
                  new POWER7 info ..Linus Torvalds2009/08/27 11:53 AM
                  new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/27 01:00 PM
                    new POWER7 info ..a reader2009/08/27 04:21 PM
                      new POWER7 info ..David Kanter2009/08/27 09:32 PM
                        new POWER7 info ..a reader2009/08/28 08:45 AM
                    new POWER7 info ..hobold2009/08/28 05:00 AM
                      new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/28 06:51 AM
                        new POWER7 info ..hobold2009/08/28 07:44 AM
                          new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/28 08:10 AM
                        Non Autopar submissions for NehalemIlleglWpns2009/08/28 10:41 AM
                          Non Autopar submissions for NehalemDavid Kanter2009/08/28 11:07 AM
                          Non Autopar submissions for Nehalemsomeone2009/08/28 12:00 PM
          new POWER7 info ..mas2009/08/26 12:25 AM
            An EV8 lite? (NT)anon2009/08/26 09:21 AM
              An EV8 lite? => Piranha?M.2009/08/30 04:54 AM
            new POWER7 info ..Mark Roulo2009/08/27 06:51 AM
              new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/27 07:03 AM
                new POWER7 info ..a reader2009/08/27 09:55 AM
                  new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/27 11:58 AM
                    new POWER7 info ..a reader2009/08/27 04:11 PM
                      new POWER7 info ..Gabriele Svelto2009/08/28 12:17 AM
                      new POWER7 info ..someone2009/08/28 05:27 AM
                        new POWER7 info ..a reader2009/08/28 09:07 AM
                        OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/28 11:15 AM
                          OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/28 11:39 AM
                            OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/28 01:55 PM
                              OOOE for low powerMark Roulo2009/08/28 03:16 PM
                                OOOE for low powerMark Roulo2009/08/28 03:44 PM
                                  Atom uarchDavid Kanter2009/08/28 08:19 PM
                                OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/28 08:07 PM
                              OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/28 04:18 PM
                                OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/29 01:55 AM
                                  OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/29 07:21 AM
                                    OOOE for low powera reader2009/08/29 09:14 AM
                                      OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/29 09:56 AM
                                        OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/29 10:08 AM
                                      OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/08/29 11:27 AM
                                        OOOE for low powera reader2009/08/29 04:50 PM
                                        OOOE for low poweranonymous2009/08/29 07:17 PM
                                          OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/08/30 12:07 AM
                                            OOOE for low powerJonathan Kang2009/09/01 05:44 AM
                                              OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/09/01 04:21 PM
                                                OOOE for low powerMark Roulo2009/09/01 05:53 PM
                                                  OOOE for low powerWilco2009/09/02 02:27 AM
                                                    OOOE for low powerMark Roulo2009/09/02 08:46 AM
                                                      OOOE for low powerWilco2009/09/02 04:52 PM
                                                    Define "emulate" (NT)Michael S2009/09/02 11:44 PM
                                                      Define "emulate"Wilco2009/09/03 12:33 AM
                                                        Define "emulate"none2009/09/03 04:46 AM
                                                          Define "emulate"Adrian2009/09/03 10:45 AM
                                                          Define "emulate"Wilco2009/09/03 02:20 PM
                                                            Define "emulate"none2009/09/03 10:41 PM
                                                              Define "emulate"Wilco2009/09/04 03:30 AM
                                                  low power ARM chipsMichael S2009/10/31 02:32 PM
                                                    low power ARM chipsGabriele Svelto2009/10/31 04:05 PM
                                                      low power ARM chipsMichael S2009/10/31 04:45 PM
                                                        low power ARM chipst2009/10/31 05:21 PM
                                    OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/29 10:07 AM
                                      OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/29 12:40 PM
                                        OOOE for low powera reader2009/08/29 05:03 PM
                                        OOOE for low poweranonymous2009/08/29 07:13 PM
                                          OOOE for low powersomeone2009/08/30 07:35 AM
                                            OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/30 02:32 PM
                                            OOOE for low powerMatt Sayler2009/08/31 01:38 PM
                                        OOOE for low powerDavid Kanter2009/08/30 12:07 PM
                                    OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/08/29 11:44 AM
                                  TTMMichael S2009/08/29 12:24 PM
                                    TTMFoo_2009/08/29 01:40 PM
                                      TTMMichael S2009/08/29 02:10 PM
                                        TTManon2009/08/29 07:33 PM
                                          TTMJukka Larja2009/08/29 09:49 PM
                                            TTManon2009/08/30 06:07 AM
                                              TTMJukka Larja2009/08/30 09:31 PM
                                                Area, power and AtomDavid Kanter2009/08/30 10:36 PM
                                                  Area, power and AtomMichael S2009/08/31 12:18 AM
                                                    Area, power and Atoma reader2009/08/31 08:44 AM
                                                      Area, power and AtomMichael S2009/08/31 12:19 PM
                                                        Area, power and Atoma reader2009/08/31 02:53 PM
                                                          Area, power and Atomanonymous2009/08/31 04:17 PM
                                                        Area, power and AtomGabriele Svelto2009/08/31 03:41 PM
                                                          64-bit disabled AtomsFoo_2009/09/02 04:38 AM
                                                            64-bit disabled AtomsRobert David Graham2009/09/02 12:56 PM
                                                              64-bit disabled Atomsanon2009/09/02 02:14 PM
                                                              64-bit disabled Atomsanonymous2009/09/02 04:30 PM
                                                TTMMichael S2009/08/30 11:49 PM
                                                  TTMJukka Larja2009/08/31 11:23 PM
                                            TTMPaul2009/08/30 06:38 AM
                                            TTMPaul2009/08/30 06:40 AM
                                        TTMMark Roulo2009/08/30 09:50 AM
                                          TTMPaul2009/08/30 09:54 AM
                                            TTMMark Roulo2009/08/30 10:16 AM
                                        TTMFoo_2009/09/02 04:31 AM
                                  OOOE for low powerRob Thorpe2009/08/30 09:19 AM
                                OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/08/29 11:16 AM
                                  OOOE for low powerJukka Larja2009/08/29 09:40 PM
                                    OOOE for low powerMichael S2009/08/30 12:04 AM
                          OOOE and cache/mem sizesRichard Cownie2009/08/28 05:30 PM
                            OOOE and cache/mem sizesLinus Torvalds2009/08/31 10:53 PM
                              OOOE and cache/mem sizesRichard Cownie2009/09/01 04:15 AM
                                OOOE and pipe length etc.AM2009/09/01 08:35 AM
                                  OOOE and pipe length etc.Jouni Osmala2009/09/01 08:57 AM
                                    OOOE and clock rateAM2009/09/02 01:34 AM
                                      OOOE and clock rateJouni Osmala2009/09/02 05:35 AM
                                        OOOE and clock rateMartin Høyer Kristiansen2009/09/02 06:19 AM
                                          OOOE and clock rateanon2009/09/02 09:43 PM
                                        OOOE and clock rateAM2009/09/03 02:52 AM
                                          OOOE and clock rateJouni Osmala2009/09/03 07:34 AM
                                            OOOE impactsAM2009/09/04 02:04 AM
                                              OOOE impactsDavid Kanter2009/09/04 10:12 AM
                                              OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/06 12:16 PM
                                                OOOE impactsAM2009/09/07 03:47 AM
                                                  OOOE impactsMartin Høyer Kristiansen2009/09/07 06:03 AM
                                                    Does IBM lie about PPC603 being OoO chip?AM2009/09/08 03:13 AM
                                                      No, but...Michael S2009/09/08 07:05 AM
                                                        No, but...hobold2009/09/09 05:09 AM
                                                  OOOE impactsJS2009/09/07 06:34 AM
                                                    Are Sandpile and others wrong about 0.28 um?AM2009/09/08 03:12 AM
                                                    OOOE impactssomeone2009/09/08 06:43 AM
                                                  OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/07 07:48 AM
                                                    OOOE costsDavid Kanter2009/09/07 12:07 PM
                                                    OOOE impactsAM2009/09/08 03:11 AM
                                                      OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/10 01:53 AM
                                                        OOOE impactsAM2009/09/11 04:35 AM
                                                          OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/11 08:38 AM
                                                            OOOE impactsAM2009/09/12 05:06 AM
                                                              OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/12 11:36 PM
                                                                OOOE impactsAM2009/09/14 04:39 AM
                                                                  OOOE impactsJouni Osmala2009/09/14 06:18 AM
                                                                    if-ex distanceAM2009/09/15 05:16 AM
                                                                    small addendumAM2009/09/19 03:54 AM
                                                                      small addendumJouni Osmala2009/09/19 09:51 PM
                                                                        small addendumAM2009/09/20 06:54 AM
                                                                          small addendumJouni Osmala2009/09/20 01:16 PM
                                                                            small addendumThiago Kurovski2009/09/20 04:51 PM
                                                                              small addendumJouni Osmala2009/09/20 09:21 PM
                                                                                small addendumThiago Kurovski2009/09/21 06:59 AM
                                                                            small addendumAM2009/09/21 03:14 AM
                                                                              small addendumJukka Larja2009/09/21 10:21 PM
                                                                                small addendumAM2009/09/22 03:01 AM
                                                                                  small addendumJukka Larja2009/09/22 11:31 PM
                                                                                    small addendumAM2009/09/23 08:35 AM
                                                                                      small addendumJukka Larja2009/09/23 10:31 PM
                                                                                        small addendumAM2009/09/24 12:13 AM
                                                                                          OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/09/24 09:39 PM
                                                                                            OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/25 05:18 AM
                                                                                              Back to bitsMichael S2009/09/25 07:14 AM
                                                                                                Back to bitsThiago Kurovski2009/09/25 11:24 AM
                                                                                                  Back to bitsWilco2009/09/25 03:18 PM
                                                                                                    Back to bitsThiago Kurovski2009/09/26 09:12 AM
                                                                                                  Back to bitsMichael S2009/09/26 08:54 AM
                                                                                                    Back to bitsThiago Kurovski2009/09/26 09:05 AM
                                                                                                      Back to bitsMichael S2009/09/26 09:16 AM
                                                                                                Agree, with very minor change.Jouni Osmala2009/09/25 09:37 PM
                                                                                                Back to bitsAM2009/09/26 06:16 AM
                                                                                                  Back to bitsMichael S2009/09/26 09:13 AM
                                                                                              OT metadiscussionDavid Kanter2009/09/25 12:23 PM
                                                                                                OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/26 05:55 AM
                                                                                              OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/09/25 11:33 PM
                                                                                                OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/26 05:50 AM
                                                                                                  OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/09/27 02:16 AM
                                                                                                    OT metadiscussionMichael S2009/09/27 04:58 AM
                                                                                                      OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/28 04:07 AM
                                                                                                    OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/28 03:43 AM
                                                                                                      OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/09/29 12:45 AM
                                                                                                        OT metadiscussionAM2009/09/30 03:13 AM
                                                                                                          OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/10/01 01:34 AM
                                                                                                            OT metadiscussionAM2009/10/01 04:05 AM
                                                                                                              OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/10/02 12:38 AM
                                                                                                                OT metadiscussionAM2009/10/03 07:19 AM
                                                                                                                  OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/10/04 03:38 AM
                                                                                                                    OT metadiscussionAM2009/10/04 08:27 AM
                                                                                                                      OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/10/04 11:48 PM
                                                                                                                        OT metadiscussionAM2009/10/05 07:13 AM
                                                                                                                          About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/05 11:36 PM
                                                                                                                            About teachingAM2009/10/06 04:37 AM
                                                                                                                              About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/07 03:15 AM
                                                                                                                                About teachinganon2009/10/07 12:39 PM
                                                                                                                                About teachingAM2009/10/08 03:11 AM
                                                                                                                                  About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/09 04:10 AM
                                                                                                                                    About teachingAM2009/10/09 05:40 AM
                                                                                                                                      About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/09 09:02 PM
                                                                                                                                        About teachingAM2009/10/09 11:24 PM
                                                                                                                                          About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/10 10:50 PM
                                                                                                                                            About teachingAM2009/10/12 02:02 AM
                                                                                                                                              About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/12 10:51 PM
                                                                                                                                                About teachingAM2009/10/13 04:06 AM
                                                                                                                                                  About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/13 11:33 PM
                                                                                                                                                    About teachingAM2009/10/14 03:36 AM
                                                                                                                                                      About teachingJukka Larja2009/10/14 08:19 PM
                                                                                                                                                        About teachingAM2009/10/15 04:22 AM
                                                                                                                                          About teachingSalvatore De Dominicis2009/10/12 02:23 AM
                                                                                                                                            About teachingDean Kent2009/10/12 12:25 PM
                                                                                                                                              About teachingSalvatore De Dominicis2009/10/13 02:11 AM
                                                                                                OT metadiscussionSeni2009/09/26 06:26 AM
                                                                                                  OT metadiscussionWilco2009/09/26 08:08 AM
                                                                                                  OT metadiscussionJukka Larja2009/09/27 02:18 AM
                                                                                                    OT metadiscussionMichael S2009/09/27 05:12 AM
                                                                                          small addendumJouni Osmala2009/09/24 10:04 PM
                                                                                            small addendumAM2009/09/25 05:04 AM
                                                                                            extra stage in EV6AM2009/09/26 06:29 AM
                                                    PPC603 does OoOEhobold2009/09/08 05:40 AM
                                                  OOOE impactssomeone2009/09/08 05:39 AM
                                                    EV6AM2009/09/09 04:33 AM
                                      OOOE and clock rateSeni2009/09/02 09:11 AM
                                        OOOE and clock rateLinus Torvalds2009/09/02 06:48 PM
                                          OOOE and clock rateanon2009/09/02 11:55 PM
                                            OOOE and clock rateWilco2009/09/03 12:44 AM
                                              OOOE and clock rateJouni Osmala2009/09/03 01:02 AM
                                                OOOE and ItaniumAM2009/09/03 01:27 AM
                                                OOOE and clock rateMartin Høyer Kristiansen2009/09/03 03:41 AM
                                              OOOE and clock rateanon2009/09/03 01:12 AM
                                                OOOE and clock rateWilco2009/09/03 02:10 AM
                                            POWER6 skewed pipelinePaul A. Clayton2009/09/03 11:22 AM
                                              POWER6 skewed pipelineAnon42009/09/03 07:00 PM
                                          OOOE and clock rateMr. Camel2009/09/03 03:40 AM
                                          OOOE and clock rateRichard Cownie2009/09/03 06:42 AM
                                  OOOE and pipe length etc.Richard Cownie2009/09/01 09:01 AM
                                    OOOE and pipe length etc.AM2009/09/02 01:32 AM
                                      OOOE and pipe length etc.Richard Cownie2009/09/02 07:49 AM
                                        LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/03 01:40 AM
                                          LRB choice of P54Gian-Carlo Pascutto2009/09/03 01:45 AM
                                            LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/03 03:18 AM
                                              LRB choice of P54Gian-Carlo Pascutto2009/09/03 03:55 AM
                                                LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/03 04:28 AM
                                                  LRB choice of P54Gian-Carlo Pascutto2009/09/03 05:29 AM
                                                    Amount of cache per core matters,and mem bandwith too (NT)Jouni Osmala2009/09/03 07:44 AM
                                                    LRB choice of P54rwessel2009/09/03 02:31 PM
                                                    LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/04 02:24 AM
                                                  LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/03 06:40 AM
                                                    LRB choice of P54a reader2009/09/03 09:20 AM
                                                      LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/03 05:57 PM
                                                    LRB choice of P54Jonathan Kang2009/09/03 02:30 PM
                                                      LRB choice of P54David Kanter2009/09/03 04:38 PM
                                                        LRB choice of P54Jonathan Kang2009/09/04 08:16 AM
                                                      LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/03 06:07 PM
                                                        LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/04 02:20 AM
                                                        LRB choice of P54Jonathan Kang2009/09/04 08:13 AM
                                                          LRB choice of P54Dan Downs2009/09/04 08:38 AM
                                                            LRB choice of P54Dan Downs2009/09/05 04:36 AM
                                                              LRB choice of P54Anon2009/09/05 02:44 PM
                                                          LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/05 12:12 AM
                                                    LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/04 02:18 AM
                                                      LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/04 08:18 PM
                                                        LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/04 11:53 PM
                                                          LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/05 04:06 AM
                                                            LRB choice of P54AM2009/09/05 09:14 AM
                                                  LRB choice of P54 - Layout?Anonymous2009/09/03 02:40 PM
                                                    LRB choice of P54 - Layout?anonymous2009/09/03 03:54 PM
                                                  LRB choice of P54Jukka Larja2009/09/03 09:58 PM
                                                  LRB choice of P54mpx2009/09/04 04:07 AM
                                          LRB choice of P54anon2009/09/03 02:02 AM
                                        OOOE and pipe length etc.Gian-Carlo Pascutto2009/09/03 01:40 AM
                                      Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Mark Roulo2009/09/03 04:26 PM
                                        Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Michael S2009/09/03 05:14 PM
                                          Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Mark Roulo2009/09/04 10:05 AM
                                            Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Jonathan Kang2009/09/04 10:59 AM
                                            Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Michael S2009/09/05 09:58 AM
                                            Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386James2009/09/07 03:15 AM
                                              Larrabee: Pentium vs 486 vs 386Mark Roulo2009/09/07 07:44 PM
                                      OOOE and pipe length etc.Michael S2009/09/03 05:42 PM
                                        LRB coreAM2009/09/04 02:09 AM
                                          LRB coreMichael S2009/09/04 05:07 AM
                                            LRB coreanon2009/09/04 08:27 PM
                                              LRB coreMichael S2009/09/05 10:12 AM
                                                LRB coreanon2009/09/05 11:03 PM
                                                  reasons for split I/D L1 cachesMichael S2009/09/06 04:10 AM
                                                    reasons for split I/D L1 cachesanon2009/09/06 06:32 AM
                                                      reasons for split I/D L1 caches?2009/09/06 10:35 AM
                                                        reasons for split I/D L1 cachesmegol2009/09/06 03:39 PM
                                                          reasons for split I/D L1 caches?2009/09/07 04:20 AM
                                                            reasons for split I/D L1 cachesanon2009/09/07 06:25 AM
                                                              cache hinting?2009/09/07 07:10 AM
                                                                cache hintinganon2009/09/07 07:35 AM
                                                                  cache hinting?2009/09/07 09:10 AM
                                                                    cache hintinganon2009/09/07 09:49 AM
                                                                      cache hinting?2009/09/07 10:37 AM
                                              Split and unified cachesDavid Kanter2009/09/06 01:38 PM
                                                Split and unified cachesanon2009/09/06 11:15 PM
                                                  Split and unified cachesMichael S2009/09/07 12:40 AM
                                                    Split and unified cachesanon2009/09/07 02:24 AM
                                                  Split and unified cachesDavid Kanter2009/09/07 12:51 AM
                                                    Split and unified cachesanon2009/09/07 02:13 AM
                                            LRB coreAM2009/09/05 12:08 AM
                                            LRB coreLinus Torvalds2009/09/05 10:47 AM
                                          LRB coreDavid Kanter2009/09/04 01:23 PM
                                            LRB coreAnon2009/09/04 06:32 PM
                                              LRB coreDavid Kanter2009/09/04 10:15 PM
                                              LRB coreMichael S2009/09/05 10:21 AM
                              OOOE and cache/mem sizesa reader2009/09/01 09:19 AM
                                OOOE and cache/mem sizesRichard Cownie2009/09/01 09:43 AM
                      snapdraon?Michael S2009/08/28 06:10 AM
                        snapdraon?a reader2009/08/28 08:51 AM
                          Thanks (NT)Michael S2009/08/29 12:53 PM
                        snapdraon?Paul2009/08/28 01:12 PM
              new POWER7 info ..EduardoS2009/08/27 03:41 PM
                new POWER7 info ..Jesper Frimann2009/08/28 05:03 AM
                  Single threaded performanceDavid Kanter2009/08/28 10:52 AM
  Hot Chips XXI Preview onlinehobold2009/08/13 07:30 AM
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