Process Technologies Cross Comparisons
At IEDM 2004 and 2005, TI and Fujitsu also presented detailed of their respective next-generation process technologies. These processes are not specifically covered in detail in this article, but they are listed in Table 2 to provide multiple points of reference for IBM and Intel’s respective process technologies. Table 2 summarizes various front end characteristics of process technologies from IBM (and friends), Intel, Fujitsu and TI, respectively. Table 2 illustrates clearly the respective focuses of high performance and low power processes. Table 2 also includes reported transistor performance characteristics for a DRAM-optimized process from Elpida as an interesting reference point. The data reported for the 135 nm process from Elpida shows the clear focus in DRAM processes to minimize short channel and gate leakage in the access transistor and retain data in the storage cell for as long as possible. Consequently, transistors in DRAM-optimized processes have excellent leakage characteristics, but very poor Idsat drive currents. Table 2 shows that just as DRAM-optimized processes diverged from logic-optimized processes, requirement-driven optimizations now clearly delineate high performance and low power processes from within the family of logic-optimized processes.
Table 2 – Front-end process technology comparisons at 130, 90, 65 and 45 nm nodes
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