# Example of Geographic Coordinate System (Calculating Distance) (Especially for GATE-Geospatial 2022)

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The most well-known coordinate system is the Geographic Coordinate System (GCS) , which uses measures of latitude and longitude to determine your location.

The equator has latitude of , the North Pole has latitude of north, and the South Pole has latitude of south. Latitude is often measured in degrees, with minutes and seconds for measurements.

Longitude is ranging from to eastward and westward. Longitude shown as a vertical line.

In this figure, you can see the globe is divided into grid square using lines of latitude and longitude. There are three points on the grid map marked in red, blue, and green. The points are all in very different locations but share either the same longitude or latitude with one of the other points. The green and blue points are on same latitude, (horizontal line, parallel to the equator) . The red and blue points are on the same longitude, (vertical line, parallel to the prime meridian) .

As you can see, latitude and longitude can have the same numerical value ( in this case) but as these values in fact indicate very different points on the landscape and so, must be written in a universal format so we can know the difference between the two.

Now to calculate the distance between any two points on earth, the formula is:

**Example**:

Great circle distance between Nome and Miami